ch3_sec3.4.ppt - Section 3.4 Additional Topics in...

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Unformatted text preview: Section 3.4 Additional Topics in Probability and Counting 1 Section 3.4 Objectives Determine the number of ways a group of objects can be arranged in order Determine the number of ways to choose several objects from a group without regard to order Use the counting principles to find probabilities 2 Permutations Permutation An ordered arrangement of objects The number of different permutations of n distinct objects is n! (n factorial) n! = n∙(n – 1)∙(n – 2)∙(n – 3)∙ ∙ ∙3∙2 ∙1 0! = 1 Examples: 6! = 6∙5∙4∙3∙2∙1 = 720 4! = 4∙3∙2∙1 = 24 3 Example: Permutation of n Objects The objective of a 9 x 9 Sudoku number puzzle is to fill the grid so that each row, each column, and each 3 x 3 grid contain the digits 1 to 9. How many different ways can the first row of a blank 9 x 9 Sudoku grid be filled? Solution: The number of permutations is 9!= 9∙8∙7∙6∙5∙4∙3∙2∙1 = 362,880 ways 4 Permutations Permutation of n objects taken r at a time The number of different permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time ■ 5 n! where r ≤ n Pr ( n r )! n Example: Finding nPr Find the number of ways of forming three-digit codes in which no digit is repeated. Solution: • You need to select 3 digits from a group of 10 • n = 10, r = 3 10! 10! 10 P3 (10 3)! 7! 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 720 ways 6 Example: Finding nPr Forty-three race cars started the 2007 Daytona 500. How many ways can the cars finish first, second, and third? Solution: • You need to select 3 cars from a group of 43 • n = 43, r = 3 43! 43! 43 P3 (43 3)! 40! 43 42 41 74, 046 ways 7 Distinguishable Permutations Distinguishable Permutations The number of distinguishable permutations of n objects where n1 are of one type, n2 are of another type, and so on ■ n! n1 !n2 ! n3 ! n k ! where n1 + n2 + n3 +∙∙∙+ nk = n 8 Example: Distinguishable Permutations A building contractor is planning to develop a subdivision that consists of 6 one-story houses, 4 two-story houses, and 2 split-level houses. In how many distinguishable ways can the houses be arranged? Solution: • There are 12 houses in the subdivision • n = 12, n1 = 6, n2 = 4, n3 = 2 12! 6!4! 2! 13, 860 distinguishable ways 9 Combinations Combination of n objects taken r at a time A selection of r objects from a group of n objects without regard to order ■ 10 n Cr n! ( n r )! r ! Example: Combinations A state’s department of transportation plans to develop a new section of interstate highway and receives 16 bids for the project. The state plans to hire four of the bidding companies. How many different combinations of four companies can be selected from the 16 bidding companies? Solution: • You need to select 4 companies from a group of 16 • n = 16, r = 4 • Order is not important 11 Solution: Combinations 16! 16 C4 (16 4)!4! 16! 12!4! 16 15 14 13 12! 12!4 3 2 1 1820 different combinations 12 Example: Finding Probabilities A student advisory board consists of 17 members. Three members serve as the board’s chair, secretary, and webmaster. Each member is equally likely to serve any of the positions. What is the probability of selecting at random the three members that hold each position? 13 Solution: Finding Probabilities There is only one favorable outcome There are 17! 17 P3 (17 3)! 17! 17 16 15 14! 4080 ways the three positions can be filled 1 P( selecting the 3 members ) 0.0002 4080 14 Example: Finding Probabilities You have 11 letters consisting of one M, four Is, four Ss, and two Ps. If the letters are randomly arranged in order, what is the probability that the arrangement spells the word Mississippi? 15 Solution: Finding Probabilities There is only one favorable outcome There are 11! 34, 650 1!4! 4! 2! 11 letters with 1,4,4, and 2 like letters distinguishable permutations of the given letters 1 P( Mississippi ) 0.000029 34650 16 Example: Finding Probabilities A food manufacturer is analyzing a sample of 400 corn kernels for the presence of a toxin. In this sample, three kernels have dangerously high levels of the toxin. If four kernels are randomly selected from the sample, what is the probability that exactly one kernel contains a dangerously high level of the toxin? 17 Solution: Finding Probabilities The possible number of ways of choosing one toxic kernel out of three toxic kernels is 3C 1 = 3 The possible number of ways of choosing three nontoxic kernels from 397 nontoxic kernels is 397 C3 = 10,349,790 Using the Multiplication Rule, the number of ways of choosing one toxic kernel and three nontoxic kernels is C1 ∙ 3 18 397 C3 = 3 ∙ 10,349,790 3 = 31,049,370 Solution: Finding Probabilities The number of possible ways of choosing 4 kernels from 400 kernels is 400C4 = 1,050,739,900 The probability of selecting exactly 1 toxic kernel is C1 397 C3 P(1 toxic kernel ) 400 C4 3 31, 049,370 0.0296 1, 050, 739,900 19 Section 3.4 Summary Determined the number of ways a group of objects can be arranged in order Determined the number of ways to choose several objects from a group without regard to order Used the counting principles to find probabilities 20 ...
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