Final Study Guide.docx - Bio 180 Ecology Exam 3 Study Guide...

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Bio 180 EcologyExam 3 Study Guideupdated 11/16/2017Exam 3 will focus on lectures from November 10-December 6, Chapters 16-25, and Labs 5, 8-11. There will also be a cumulative component that will draw from all lecture, textbook, and lab material from the semester. Learning goals for each lecture will be updated as we go; use this only as a guideline for future lectures!CommunitiesExplain what a community is and how they are more than the sum of their parts. Give several different ways we can delimit communities.Understand the difference between a food web and an interaction web.Describe methods of quantifying species diversity (richness, evenness, Shannon Diversity Index, rank abundance curves) and be able to apply these methods and interpret values.Be able to explain what a species accumulation curves tell us about communities.Explain why species abundance patterns in a community often show a log-normal distribution, and why we often see only a portion of this distribution when sampling.Describe the difference between direct and indirect interactions and weak and strong interactions. Be able to give examples and interpret results of experiments that demonstrate these effects.Explain what a trophic cascade is and why cascades occur. Explain what facilitation is and recognize examples.Describe the difference between dominant and keystone species and be able to identify which role a species plays in a community.Define ecosystem engineers and give an example.Describe how environmental differences can influence the outcome of species interactions and community diversity. Be able to interpret results of experiments.CBH3 Concepts 16.1-16.316.1 - Communities are groups of interacting species that occur together at the same place and timeCommunities can be delineated by the characteristics of their physical environment or by biological characteristics, such as the presence of abundant speciesEcologists often use subsets of species to define and study communities because it is impractical to count or study all the species within a
community, especially if they are small or undescribed16.2 - Species diversity and species composition are important descriptors of community structureSpecies diversity, the most commonly used measure of community structure, is a recombination of the number of species (species richness) and the abundances of those species relative to one another (species evenness)Communities can differ in the commonness or rarity of their species. Rank abundance curves allow one to plot the proportional abundance of each species relative to the others, from most abundant to least abundantSpecies richness increases with increased sampling effort up to a certain point, at which additional samples reveal few or no new speciesSpecies composition - the identity of the species present in a community -is an obvious but important characteristic of community structure that is not revealed in measures of species diversity

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