Ch 11 (Quiz 6, Ch 10 and 11).docx - Chapter 11 The Self and Identity I Self-Understanding A What is self-understanding 1 Self-understanding is the

Ch 11 (Quiz 6, Ch 10 and 11).docx - Chapter 11 The Self and...

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Chapter 11: The Self and IdentityI. Self-UnderstandingA. What is self-understanding?
B. Developmental changes1. Infancya) Infants are not just given a “self” by parents or culture; they find and construct “selves.”b) Infants cannot verbally express views on the nature of the self and cannot understand the complex instructions required to engage in a child development researcher's task. Being attentive and positive toward one’s image in a mirror – appears as early as 3 months of age; a central, more complete index of self-recognition -- the ability to recognize one’s physical features – does not emerge until the second year.c) Researchers test infants’ visual self-recognition by presenting them with images of themselves in mirrors and pictures; a dot of rouge on the infant’s nose and how often the infant touches its nose, indicates the infant recognizes itself and attempts to remove the rouge because it violates the infant’s view of the self.d) Infants begin to develop a self-understanding called self-recognitionat approximately 18 months of age.2. Early childhood
a) Five main characteristics of self-understanding in young children:1) Confusion of self, mind, and body. Youngchildren generally confuse self, mind, and body.2) Concrete descriptions. Pre-school children mainly think of themselves and define themselves in concrete terms. “I know my ABC’S”; “I live in a big house”;3) Physical description. Young children alsodistinguish themselves from others through many physical and material attributes. “I am different from Jennifer because I have brown hair and she has blonde hair”;4) Active descriptions. Pre-school children often describe themselves in terms of activities such as play.5) Unrealistic positive overestimations. These occur because children· Have difficulty in differentiating their desire and actual competence;· Cannot yet generate an ideal self thatis distinguished from a real self, and· Rarely engage in social comparison –how they compare with others.3. Middle and late childhooda) Self-evaluation becomes more complex during middle and late childhood, Five key changes characterize the increased complexity:1) Psychological characteristics and traits – from
2) Social descriptions – begin to include social aspects, i.e. Girls Scouts, religious affiliation, and someone with close friends.3) Social comparison – increasing reference to social comparison, “in comparison with others,”4) Real and ideal Self – differentiating between their actual competencies from those they aspire to have.5) Realistic self-evaluations become more realistic, due to increased comparison and perspective taking.

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