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Unformatted text preview: America The Essential Learning Edition Puget Sound C A G WASHINGTON R O Helena E D A OREGON NORTH DAKOTA R MONTANA C Eugene Columbia R. G Missouri R. A N Spokane R Olympia Portland Salem N E Seattle Boise SOUTH DAKOTA a Y Sn R. Black Hills WYOMING Pierre A C A S C K E IDAHO ke Fargo Bismarck Billings Sioux Falls Casper T Reno CALIFORNIA Sacramento R. ad KANSAS Arkansas R. o A le Grand L COLORADO N A th V a l Dea VAD y Mojave Desert Colorado Springs U NE Las Vegas P Denver Grand Junction r lo Co Lake Mead Lincoln O UTAH A OCEAN RR y alle in V oaqu San J PA C I F I C NEVADA NEBRASKA Cheyenne Salt Lake City Carson City SIE San Francisco M Great Salt Lake Canyon Wichita T ARIZONA Oklahoma City NEW MEXICO Phoenix N San Diego OKLAHOMA A Albuquerque I Santa Fe Los Angeles I S N Tucson Dallas Ft. Worth El Paso G Austin BEAU F O RT SEA San Antonio Nu e c Bering Strait Brooks Range e s R. ALASKA BERING SE A 0 0 u ti an 250 250 500 Miles 500 Kilometers HAWAII Kauai Juneau Oahu Niihau Honolulu Kodiak Island PA C I F I C O C E A N Corpus Christi CANADA Anchorage Gulf of Alaska I s l a n d s M E X I C O Fairbanks A le R. de ran RUSSIA d o R. TEXAS z os Bra S Ri o Co lor a Pec os R. PACIFIC OCEAN 0 0 50 100 Miles 50 100 Kilometers Molokai Maui Lanai Kahoolawe Hilo Hawaii Brownsville D uperio ke S r Mississ ipp iR . T O Tennessee R. MISSISSIPPI Shreveport Vicksburg P P A Birmingham ALABAMA R. ty Baton Rouge Houston A N A ATLANTIC Wilmington OCEAN Columbia SOUTH CAROLINA GEORGIA Charleston Savannah Okefenokee Swamp Mobile Cape Hatteras Charlotte Greenville Atlanta Sava nn LOUISIANA Trin i Raleigh NORTH CAROLINA Montgomery Jackson Richmond Norfolk R. ine R . VIRGINIA ah Re dR . RI C TENNESSEE Little Rock New Haven NJ New York L Knoxville Chattanooga Memphis CT Hartford DE A Tulsa Cape Cod Providence Washington, D.C. I ou io R. KENTUCKY Nashville ARKANSAS WEST VIRGINIA Frankfort Charleston Lexington Louisville MISSOURI Concord Boston Trenton Philadelphia Wilmington Baltimore Dover MD Annapolis Columbus Indianapolis Cincinnati Oh St. Louis Portland Harrisburg Pittsburgh H Mis s Kansas City Topeka Jefferson City MA Augusta Long Island PENNSYLVANIA OHIO Springfield N I Albany Hudson R. ron Detroit INDIANA ILLINOIS NEW YORK NH S A Hu ntario Buffalo rie eE k L a Cleveland Gary ri R . Sab e Lansing Chicago Des Moines Omaha L O ake VT Adirondack Mountains N Cedar IOWA Rapids A R. pi sip Milwaukee Madison k G WISCONSIN H Montpelier I Green Bay St. Paul C La N I Lake Michigan MINNESOTA U M Mi ss is MAINE Sault Ste. Marie Duluth Minneapolis . eR nc re M La A St .L aw A Tallahassee Pensacola Jacksonville St. Augustine FLORIDA New Orleans Orlando Galveston Cape Canaveral Tampa St. Petersburg Lake Okeechobee BAHAMAS The Fort Lauderdale Everglades Miami s ey GULF OF MEXICO Key West Fl o r ida K St. Thomas San Juan PUERTO RICO Ponce CUBA 0 0 100 100 200 Miles 200 Kilometers BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS ATLANTIC OCEAN U.S.St. John VIRGIN ISLANDS St. Croix 0 0 50 50 100 Miles 100 Kilometers CARIBBEAN SEA America The Essential Learning Edition volume one David emory Shi George brown Tindall n W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. New York • London W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2015 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America First Edition Editor: Jon Durbin Developmental Editors: Lisa Moore and John Elliott Associate Editor: Justin Cahill Project Editor: Melissa Atkin Editorial Assistant: Penelope Lin Marketing Manager, History: Sarah England Manuscript Editor: Mike Fleming Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Manager: Andy Ensor Media Editor: Lisa Moore Media Project Editor: Penelope Lin Media Editorial Assistant: Chris Hillyer Design Director: Hope Miller Goodell Photo Editor: Nelson Colón Permissions Manager: Megan Jackson Composition: Graphic World, Inc. Manufacturing: Courier, Kendallville The Library of Congress has cataloged the full edition as follows: Tindall, George Brown.   America : a narrative history / George Brown Tindall,  David Emory Shi.—9th ed.    p.  cm.   Includes bibliographical references and index.   ISBN 978-0-393-91262-3 (hardcover)   1. United States—History—Textbooks.  I. Shi, David E.  II. Title. 2012034504  E178.1.T55 2013  973—dc23   This edition:   ISBN 978-0-393-93802-9 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 For Jon Durbin, editor and friend About the Authors David Shi is a professor of history and the president emeritus of Furman University. He is the author of several books on American cultural history, including the award-winning The Simple Life: Plain Living and High Thinking in American Culture and Facing Facts: Realism in American Thought and Culture, 1850–1920. George Tindall recently of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, was an award-winning historian of the South with a number of major books to his credit, including The Emergence of the New South, 1913–1945 and The Disruption of the Solid South. Lead authors for media and pedagogy Jon Lee (San Antonio College, Texas) served on the American Historical Association/Lumina Tuning Project and educational commissions in the state of Texas to establish discipline-wide historical learning outcomes. He received the “Most Inspirational Professor” award from Phi Theta Kappa Beta Nu. He is the coordinator of the Honors Academy at San Antonio College. Erik Anderson (San Antonio College, Texas) teaches American history and is involved with the Honors Academy. He also serves as the academic liaison with the Travis Early College High School program at San Antonio College. Anderson earned his doctorate at Brown University. Contents in Brief Part ONE Chapter 1 An Old “New” World   3 The Collision of Cultures in the 16th Century  7 Chapter 2 England and Its American Colonies, 1607–1732  39 Chapter 3 Colonial Ways of Life, 1607–1750  79 Chapter 4 From Colonies to States, 1607–1776  107 Building a Nation   Part TWO 147 Chapter 5 The American Revolution, 1776–1783  151 Chapter 6 Creating a “More Perfect Union,” 1783–1800  183 Chapter 7 The Early Republic, 1800–1815  221 Part THREE An Expanding Nation   Chapter 8 The Emergence of a Market Economy, 1815–1850  265 Chapter 9 Nationalism and Sectionalism, 1815–1828  293 Chapter 10 The Jacksonian Era, 1828–1840  319 Chapter 11 The South and Slavery, 1800–1860  347 Chapter 12 Religion, Romanticism, and Reform, 1800–1860  375 Part Four A House Divided and Rebuilt   Chapter 13 Western Expansion and Southern Secession, 1830–1861  419 Chapter 14 The War of the Union, 1861–1865  465 Chapter 15 Reconstruction, 1865–1877  511 261 415 xi Contents List of Maps  xix List of What’s It All About? features  xxiii List of Thinking Like A Historian features  xxiv Preface  xxvii Acknowledgments  xxxiv Part One | An Old “New” World  3 Chapter 1  The Collision of Cultures in the 16th Century  7 Early Cultures in the Americas  9 The Expansion of Europe  17 The Spanish Empire  22 The Columbian Exchange  26 Spanish Exploration in North America  27 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? The Columbian Exchange and the Spanish Empire in North America  31 Reviewing the Core Objectives   36 Chapter 2  England 1607–1732  39 and Its American Colonies, The English Background  40 Settling the American Colonies  44 Native Peoples and English Settlers  61 Slavery and Servitude in the Colonies  68 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Different Beginnings, Common Trends: The English Colonies in North America, 1600-1700  70 Thriving Colonies  75 Reviewing the Core Objectives  76 xiii Chapter 3  Colonial Ways of Life, 1607–1750  79 The Shape of Early America  80 “Women’s Work” in the Colonies  81 Society and Economy in the Colonies  83 Race-Based Slavery in the Colonies  91 First Stirrings of a Common Colonial Culture  94 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Comparing the Three English Colonial Regions  96 Reviewing the Core Objectives  104 Chapter 4  From Colonies to States, 1607–1776  107 Troubled Neighbors  108 Warfare in the Colonies  114 Tightening Control over the Colonies  121 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? The Road to the American Revolution  122 The Crisis Grows  129 Reviewing the Core Objectives   140 Thinking Like a Historian: Debating the Origins of the American Revolution  142 Part Two | Building a Nation  147 Chapter 5  The American Revolution, 1776–1783  151 Mobilizing for War  152 Setbacks for the British (1777)  158 American Society at War   170 War as an Engine of Change  172 Equality and Its Limits  176 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? From Subjects to Citizens  179 Reviewing the Core Objectives  180 xiv   Chapter 6  Creating 1783–1800  183 a “More Perfect Union,” The Confederation Government  184 Creating the Constitution  189 The Fight for Ratification  196 The Federalist Era  200 Foreign and Domestic Crises  206 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Federalists vs. Republicans  214 Reviewing the Core Objectives  218 Chapter 7  The Early Republic, 1800–1815  221 Jeffersonian Republicanism  222 War in the Mediterranean and Europe  232 The War of 1812  238 The Aftermath of the War  247 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Managing Foreign Policy in the Early Republic  252 Reviewing the Core Objectives  254 Thinking Like a Historian: Debating Thomas Jefferson and Slavery  256 Part Three | An Expanding Nation  261 Chapter 8  The Emergence of a Market Economy, 1815–1850  265 The Market Revolution  266 The Industrial Revolution  272 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Technological Innovation and a National Marketplace  278 Immigration  281 Organized Labor and New Professions  285 Reviewing the Core Objectives  290 xv Chapter 9  Nationalism 1815–1828  293 and Sectionalism, A New Nationalism  294 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Sectional Conflict and Economic Policies  297 Debates over the American System  299 “Era of Good Feelings”  301 Nationalist Diplomacy  305 The Rise of Andrew Jackson  309 Reviewing the Core Objectives  316 Chapter 10  The Jacksonian Era, 1828–1840  319 Jacksonian Democracy  321 Nullification  326 Jackson’s Indian Policy  330 Political Battles  334 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Creating a Two-Party System: Democrats vs. Whigs  340 Assessing the Jacksonian Era  342 Reviewing the Core Objectives  344 Chapter 11  The South and Slavery, 18001860  347 The Distinctiveness of the Old South  348 The Cotton Kingdom  352 White Social Groups in the South  355 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Cotton and the Transformation of the South  356 Black Society in the South  360 Forging a Slave Community  366 Reviewing the Core Objectives  372 xvi   Chapter 12  Religion, 1800–1860  375 Romanticism, and Reform, Religion  376 Romanticism in America  385 The Reform Impulse  391 The Anti-Slavery Movement  398 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Abolition  406 Reviewing the Core Objectives  408 Thinking Like a Historian: Debating Separate Spheres  410 Part Four | A House Divided and Rebuilt  415 Chapter 13  Western Expansion and Southern Secession, 1830–1861  419 Moving West  420 The Mexican-American War  433 Slavery in the Territories  437 The Emergence of the Republican Party  445 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Slavery, Territorial Expansion, and Secession  456 The Response in the South  458 Reviewing the Core Objectives  462 Chapter 14  The War of the Union, 1861–1865  465 Mobilizing Forces in the North and South  466 Emancipation  480 The War behind the Lines  488 The Faltering Confederacy  492 A Transforming War  503 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? Why Was the North Victorious in the Civil War?  504 Reviewing the Core Objectives  508 xvii Chapter 15  Reconstruction, 1865–1877  511 The War’s Aftermath in the South  512 The Battle over Political Reconstruction  513 Reconstruction in Practice  522 The Grant Years and Northern Disillusionment  530 WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT? From Slave to Citizen  538 Reconstruction’s Significance  539 Reviewing the Core Objectives  540 Thinking Like a Historian: Debating Reconstruction  542 Glossary  G-1 Appendix  A-1 The Declaration of Independence  A-1 Articles of Confederation  A-5 The Constitution of The United States  A-11 Amendments to the Constitution  A-20 Presidential Elections  A-30 Admission of States  A-38 Population of The United States  A-39 Immigration to The United States, Fiscal Years 1820–2011  A-40 Immigration by Region and Selected Country of Last Residence, Fiscal Years 1820–2011  A-42 Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Secretaries of State  A-51 Further Readings   R-1 Credits  C-1 Index  I-1 xviii   Maps Chapter 1 The First Migration  8 Pre-Columbian Indian Civilizations in Middle and South America  11 Pre-Columbian Indian Civilizations in North America  12 Columbus’s Voyages  19 Spanish Explorations of the Mainland  25 English, French, and Dutch Explorations  32 Chapter 2 Land Grants to the Virginia Company  45 Early Virginia and Maryland  47 Early New England Settlements  50 Early Settlements in the South  55 The Middle Colonies  58 European Settlements and Indian Tribes in Early America  62 The African Slave Trade, 1500–1800  72 Chapter 3 Atlantic Trade Routes  88 Major Immigrant Groups in Colonial America  90 Chapter 4 The French in North America  109 Major Campaigns of the French and Indian War  115 North America, 1713  118 North America, 1763  119 Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775  134 Chapter 5 Major Campaigns in New York and New Jersey, 1776–1777  157 Major Campaigns in New York and Pennsylvania, 1777  160 Western Campaigns, 1776–1779  163 Major Campaigns in the South, 1778–1781  167 Yorktown, 1781  168 North America, 1783  169 xix xx    Maps Chapter 6 Western Land Cessions, 1781–1802  186 The Old Northwest, 1785  187 The Vote on the Constitution, 1787–1790  197 Treaty of Greenville, 1795  208 Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795  210 The Election of 1800  217 Chapter 7 Explorations of the Louisiana Purchase, 1804-1807  229 Major Northern Campaigns of the War of 1812  243 Major Southern Campaigns of the War of 1812 245 Chapter 8 Transportation West, about 1840 267 The Growth of Railroads, 1850 and 1860  270 Population Density, 1820 and 1860  280 The Growth of Industry in the 1840s  281 The Growth of Cities, 1820 and 1860  282 Chapter 9 The National Road, 1811–1838  296 The Missouri Compromise, 1820  304 Boundary Treaties, 1818–1819  306 The Election of 1828  314 Chapter 10 Indian Removal, 1820–1840  332 Chapter 11 Cotton Production, 1821  353 Population Growth and Cotton Production, 1821–1859  354 The Slave Population, 1820 and 1860  363 Chapter 12 Mormon Trek, 1830–1851  385 Maps    Chapter 13 Wagon Trails West  421 The Oregon Dispute, 1818–1846  433 The Gadsden Purchase, 1853  436 The Compromise of 1850  442 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854  447 The Election of 1856  449 The Election of 1860  455 Chapter 14 Secession, 1860–1861  467 Campaigns in the West, February–April 1862  475 The Peninsular Campaign, 1862  478 Campaigns in Virginia and Maryland, 1862  486 Campaigns in the East, 1863  495 Grant in Virginia, 1864–1865  499 Sherman’s Campaigns, 1864–1865  502 Chapter 15 Reconstruction, 1865–1877  528 The Election of 1876  537 xxi What’s It All About? Chapter 1 The Columbian Exchange and the Spanish Empire in North America  31 Chapter 2 Different Beginnings, Common Trends: The English Colonies in North America, 1600–1700  70 Chapter 3 Comparing the Three English Colonial Regions  96 Chapter 4 The Road to the American Revolution  122 Chapter 5 From Subjects to Citizens  179 Federalists vs. Republicans  214 Chapter 6 Managing Foreign Policy in the Early Republic  252 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Technological Innovation and a National Marketplace  278 Sectional Conflict and Economic Policies  297 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Creating a Two-Party System: Democrats vs. Whigs   340 Cotton and the Transformation of the South  356 Chapter 1 1 Chapter 12 Abolitionism  406 Slavery, Territorial Expansion, and Secession  456 Chapter 13 Why Was the North Victorious in the Civil War?  504 Chapter 14 From Slave to Citizen  538 Chapter 15 xxiii Thinking Like A Historian Part One  Debating the Origins of the American Revolution 142 Secondary Sources Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1992) Gary Nash, “Social Change and the Growth of Prerevolutionary Urban Radicalism” (1976) ■ ■ Primary Sources John Dickinson, “Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” (1767) ■ Governor Francis Bernard, “Letter to the Lords of Trade” (1765) ■ Part Two Debating Thomas Jefferson and Slavery 256 Secondary Sources Douglas L. Wilson, “Thomas Jefferson and the Character Issue” (1992) ■ Paul Finkelman, “Jefferson and Slavery” (1993) ■ Primary Sources Thomas Jefferson, a draft section omitted from the Declaration of Independence (1776) ■ Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (1787) ■ Thomas Jefferson, Letter to M. Warville (1788) ■ Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Holmes (1820) ■ Part Three Debating Separate Spheres 410 Secondary Sources Catherine Clinton, “The Ties that Bind” (1984) Nancy A. Hewitt, “Beyond the Search for Sisterhood: American Women’s History in the 1980s” (1985) ■ ■ Primary Sources Lucretia Mott, Discourse on Women (1849) ■ Sojourner Truth, “And Ar’n’t I a Woman?” (1851) ■ Harriett H. Robinson, Loom and Spindle or Life among the Early Mill Girls (1898) ■ xxiv   Thinking Like A Historian    Part Four Debating Reconstruction 542 Secondary Sources William Dunning, from Reconstruction, Political and Economic, 1865–1877 (1907) Eric Foner, from The Story of American Freedom (1998) ■ ■ Primary Sources Union Army General Carl Schurz, from Report on the Condition of the South (1865) ■ Mississippi Vagrant Law (1865) ■ Civil Rights Act of 1866 ■  Radical Republican Thaddeus Stevens, from “The Advantages of Negro Suffrage” (1867) ■ xxv Preface The Essential Learning Edition builds upon America’s long-established emphasis on history as a storytelling art. It features colorful characters and anecdotes informed by balanced analysis and social texture, all guided by the unfolding of key events. But this Essential Learning Edition, a new addition to the America family, includes innovative pedagogical features and tools to help students better understand the most important aspects of American history, to learn how historians study, interpret, and debate the past, and to assess their own progress. To guide my efforts in crafting the Essential Learning Edition, I asked students and professors at a variety of colleges what they most needed in an introductory survey textbook. Their answers varied, but overall there was a strong consensus on several key points: students want a manageable, inexpensive textbook that focuses on the essentials of American history while telling the dramatic story of the nation’s past in vivid but simple language. They stressed that many textbooks overwhelm them, either by flooding them with too much information or by taking too much for granted in terms of the knowledge that students bring to the introductory course. Students also asked for a textbook that would help them more easily identify the most important developments or issues to focus on (and remember) as they read. To address these student concerns, I have streamlined and compressed the Brief Ninth...
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