Copy of Final Review.docx.pdf - The Arab-Israeli Conflict...

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The Arab-Israeli Conflict - Background o Geography Indivisibility issues (a sub-issue of irredentism) Jerusalem o Christians believe that Palestine is the land from where their religion emerged… o … But Jerusalem is the third holiest city in Islam Temple Mount o Jews believe the Temple of Solomon once stood on Temple Mount… o … But Muslims believe Muhammad made a journey from the Temple Mount Dome of the Rock o Jews believe there are Jewish relics beneath the rock… o … But Muslims believe the Dome of the Rock has the imprint of Muhammad’s foot o Changing Regional Patterns Land Ottoman Empire o 1858 and 1867 Reforms Two laws that created private property Regulated land ownership and cultivation throughout the Empire Established clear title possession and land-tax liabilities Increased state revenues o The 1867 reform also granted foreigners the right to own land, as long as taxes were paid to the Ottoman Empire Palestine o State land: uncultivated due to security issues o Private property: owned almost exclusively by large landowners… Ottomans deprived of land use, income, or taxes o State + Private property: cultivated by peasants, communal ownership, frequently in debt to landlords who weren’t present Damascus authorities would punish the peasants by razing villages, wreaking havoc, etc. Peasants were reluctant of land ownership for 2 main reasons: More taxes
Army conscription Land Ownership o Local notables, tax collectors, and large landowners all owned land o Only 20% of the land in Galilee and 50% in Judea was owned by peasants o The land was more profitable when it was owned by European companies or individuals Ownership slowly shifted from Palestinian notables and outsiders to Christians from the coastal areas Sursuq family: Greek Catholics in the silk and textile business, violated Ottoman regulations by bribing local authorities and bought more than the maximum amount Trade Changes in trade were largely due to the Ottoman Land Reforms of 1858 and 1867 1883: British Ottoman Commercial Convention o Integrated Ottoman Empire into the world economy o Beirut, Jaffa, and Haifa emerge as centers of European imports o Jerusalem becomes an area of attention Population Identity had always been familial and local, not national There was some sense of unity in Syria under Arab rule, but debatable whether or not this is “nationalism” Zionists believe that Palestinian nationalism only ever emerged in response to Zionism Arab demographic majority o 1878: 443,000 Arabs; 15,000 Jews o 1914: 560,000 Arabs; 80,000 Jews o 1933: 950,000 Arabs; 280,000 Jews o 1946: 1.26 million Arabs; 608,000 Jews - Understand that this all contributes to a groundwork infrastructure that allowed Jewish settlements to be easily established in Palestine - Zionism o Founded by Theodor Herzl Tenets: Jews constitute a nation Jews should establish a Jewish state in Palestine Largely secular (secular nationalism) Context: Centuries of Jewish persecution and the rise of anti-semitism

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