ANTH200_Final_Review - ANTH200 Final Review Fossil Record 1...

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ANTH200 Final Review Fossil Record 1) Depending on the scientist, earliest Homo is conceived of either as a single, variable species (H. Habilis) or as multiple, less variable species (usually H. Habilis, H. rudolfensis, or H. sp. Nov) 2) Homo Habilis: first specimen classified in genus homo, thought to be first tool user (Oldowan tools) 3) Homo Rudolfensis: no brow ridges, large face, large posterior tooth size, larger brain than H. Habilis 4) Homo Ergaster: Africa, 1.8 mya, football shaped head, robust mandibal and jaw a) Thinner cranial bones, less pronounced brow ridges, gracile (compared to erectus) b) “Nariokotome Boy”: (1.6 mya) 12 year old boy, 5’6”, know it is a male based on shape of pelvis, hips and shoulders have become narrower, legs longer c) Dmanisi, Georgia: 1 st site that erectus is found outside of Africa (1 st dispersal), in between erectus and ergaster: football shaped head, heavy brow ridges, prognathic 5) Homo Erectus: 1 st hominid to leave Africa: Africa, Asia, SW Asia a) Heavy brow ridges, football shaped head, slight increase in brain size, know what top of head looks like b) Thicker cranial bones, more pronounced brow ridges, robust i) Java Man: 900 kya, found by Eugene Du Bois, bigger, thicker brow ridges, sagittal ceal (bump) ii) Peking Man: “Sinanthropus Pekinensis” sloping forehead, football shaped 6) Homo Antecessor : 800kya, Spain, Intermediate between homo erectus and modern human a) Has canine fossa: cavity below cheek bones: seen in AMH not erectus 7) Homo Florisiensis: Flores, “Hobbit” (90k-13kya), 3 feet tall, australopithicine brain capacity a) “island dwarfism”: getting smaller because not being predated on, less food (benefits to be smaller) b) cranial vault, some thing australopithicine, others think modern human with “microcephaline” syndrome. 8) “Archaic” Homo Sapiens (Homo Heidelbergensis) (in between erectus and sapiens) a) 800-900kya, large arching brow ridges b) large nasal aperture c) thick boned low cranial vault d) no canine fossa, strong brow ridges, low sloping forehead e) MUCH larger brain than erectus f) May not be one species: different for each country g) Homo Heidelbergensis: “Mauer Mandible” (500-400kya) i) Parabolic dental arcade ii) Robust mandible, no chin iii) Discovered in Germany…also in Europe, Africa, Asia
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