for test #1 - section reviews compiled

for test #1 - section reviews compiled - (Test #1) Psyc-100...

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(Test #1) Psyc-100 Compiled Section Reviews (Chapter 1)  FOUNDATIONS FOR THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY-- THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR AND THE MIND-- RESTS ON PRIOR INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS Physical Causation Of Behavior Descartes’s dualism  placed more emphasis on role of body than had previous versions of dualism.  Hobbes’s  materialism  held that behavior is completely a product of the body and thus physically caused * 19 TH  century physiological studies of  reflexes  and of  localization of function  in the brain demonstrated the  applicability of science to mental processes and behavior The Role Of Experience * The British  empiricists  * They used the concept of  association by contiguity  to explain how sensory experience could ultimately lead to  complex thought.  * In contrast to  empiricism nativism  asserts that some knowledge is innate and that such knowledge enables  learning from experience The Evolutionary Basis Of Mind And Behavior Darwin  proposed that  natural selection  leads to the  evolution  of behavioral tendencies (as well as anatomical  * Darwin’s thinking led to a focus on the functions of  behavior . * Natural selection also offered a scientific basis for considering nativist views * Three types of biological  causal explanations  used in psychology--  neural genetic , and  evolutionary  explanations * Five other types of  causal explanations  in psychology are  learning cognitive social cultural , and  developmental  explanations. (Chapter 2)  METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY THE CASE OF THE HORSE NAMED CLEVER HANS ILLUSTRATES A NUMBER OF ISSUES FUNDAMENTAL TO  SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Facts, Theories, And Hypotheses * Objective observations about behavior ( facts ) lead psychologists to create conceptual models or explanations  ( theories ), which make specific, testable predictions ( hypotheses ).  Pfungst  drew testable hypotheses from his theory that Hans was guided by visual cues from onlookers Observation And Control * To test hypotheses, scientists control the conditions in which they make observations, so as to rule out alternative  explanations * Pfungst measured Hans’s performance in conditions arranged specifically to test his hypothesis-- with and w/o  blinders, for example. Observer-Expectancy Effects
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2008 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Madigan during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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