100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages.
Chapter 18 – The Cardiovascular System: The Heart For this assignment, please read the chapter and answer the questions below. Please type your answers in red or blue color. Please note that points may be deducted if answers are not submitted in these colors.Cardiovascular System:The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, and vessels, arteries, capillaries and veins.What is the function of this system? to transport nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout the body and to get rid of metabolic wastesHeart:The heart is a hollow, __cone__________-shaped, muscular pump within the _thoracic___ cavity.The average adult heart is _14______ cm long and __9_______ cm wide.The heart lies in the __mediastinum_______ under the sternum; its apex extends to the _fifth___ intercostal space.Pericardium:It is made of a tough outer bag that surrounds a double-layered sac. This tough, outer layer is composed of dense connective tissue and is called the __fibrous___ pericardium.Double-layered sac. The innermost layer of this sac immediately surrounds the heart and is called the ___visceral______ pericardium (also called __epicardium_______). At the base of the heart, this inner layer folds back on itself to become the __parietal_______ pericardium. Between the layers of this sac is a potential space called the __pericardial_______ cavity and it is filled with ___serous______ fluid. What is the function of this fluid? it acts as a lubricant and reduces friction from movement of musclesWall of the HeartThe wall of the heart is composed of three distinct layers.The outermost layer, the _epicardium___, is made up of connective tissue and epithelium, and contains blood and lymph capillaries along with __coronary___ arteries. It is the same as the visceral pericardium.The middle layer called __myocardium___consists of cardiac muscle and is the thickest layer of the heart wall.