Great Society, Social Movements and Vietnam
civil rights movement -
Various movements seeking civil rights, human rights and social justice since
the World War II have become known as a
civil rights movement
. The first movement that became
famous under this name was the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which sought
rights for African-Americans. In the United States, some African-Americans suffered from severe forms
of oppression, including enforced racial segregation and second class citizenship, which were legally
sanctioned by Jim Crow laws. Subsequently, other disadvantaged groups in the US and in other nations
have organized their own movements, inspired by the tactics and rhetoric of the American civil rights
movement. Such movements advocating for equal rights emerged both in democracies and in countries
without a democratic government. In non-democratic states, mass movements for democracy have
emerged which are also inspired by earlier civil rights movements.
concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial
discrimination. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction
of racial segregation into federal government policy, organized a nationwide protest against D.W.
Griffith's silent film Birth of a Nation, a film that glamorized the Ku Klux Klan.
Thurgood Marshall -
was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme
Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his
high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of
Education. Was on chief counsel of NAACP.
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education -
was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court,
which overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, by declaring that state laws
which established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal
educational opportunities. As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal
Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to
secure rights for former slaves. It includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses among others. It
was proposed on June 13, 1866, and ratified on July 9, 1868 The amendment provides a broad definition
of national citizenship, overturning the Dred Scott case, which excluded African Americans. It requires
the states to provide equal protection under the law to all persons (not only to citizens) within their
jurisdictions, and was used in the mid-20th century to dismantle legal segregation, as in Brown v. Board
Martin Luther King -