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Unformatted text preview: Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar This page intentionally left blank. 2 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar Aamir Mahar Email: [email protected] Author is not responsible for any fact/information mentioned in this booklet. This is a complied work. All contents had taken from different Internet sources. 3 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar SCIENCE CAPSULE CONTENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. SHORT INTRODUCTION 230 HOT POINTS ABBREVIATIONS (SCIENTIFIC & OTHERS) LIST OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT SI UNITS SCIENTIFIC REASONS DISCOVERIES & INVENTIONS CONTRIBUTIONS OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS SCIENTIFIC LAWS & THEORIES VITAMINS & MINERALS OUR SOLAR SYSTEM WILD FIRE & URBAN FIRE WATER POLLUTION SURVEILLANCE LITHOSPHERE LAND POLLUTION GLOBAL WARMING CAUSES GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM FIBER OPTICS SURVEILLANCE CAUSES OF DISEASES ATOM, MOLECULE & STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE KYOTO PROTOCOL TELEPHONES SEMI CONDUCTORS LASER MICROSCOPE SATELLITES ANTIBIOTICS VACCINES FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES INTRODUCTION OF IMMUNIZATION FINGERPRINTING INFRARED RADIATION GREEN HOUSE EFFECT ANTIMATTER MAGMA RAIN ACID RAIN BRAIN 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 4 MILKY WAY WEATHER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: COMPUTER INFORMATION TECHNLOGY: I/O PROCESSING AND DATA STORAGE, NETWORKING & INTERNET STANDARDS TELECOMMUNICATIONS: BASICS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION; SURVEILLANCE & GPS & FIBER OPTIC LAND SLIDES (LAND SLIP) HARD WATER & SOFT WATER HARD WATER & HEAVY WATER NUCLEAR FISSION REACTION NUCLEAR FUSION REACTION SOLAR ENERGY & THERMAL ENERGY HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY BIO FUEL METHOD NERVOUS SYSTEM & ENDOCRINE SYSTEM FORMS OF ENERGY SOME EQUIPMENT USED TO TRANSFORM ENERGY SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF COMMON PLANT/ TREES/ VEGETABLES /CEREALS/FRUITS ETC SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF ANIMALS COMMON HUMAN DISEASES & AFFECTED BODY PARTS VIRAL DISEASES IN CROPS/ PLANTS SOME FRUITS & THEIR EDIBLE PARTS COMMON NAMES OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar dangerous diseases. The revolutions in surgery and medicine the infectious diseases like small pox, malaria, typhoid etc. have been eradicated. Thus science has improved the health standards of the people. SCIENCE: The word science comes from the Latin word scientia which implies knowledge. The science as subject has come to mean the systematic, consistent and excellent study of the physical world including everything than can be seen, observed or detected in nature by the man and society and the knowledge that grows out of such study. Usually the science is characterized by the methodologies and approaches of the hypothesises, postulates, assumptions, theories and laws based experimental observations and mathematical conclusions. The science is broadly categorized into two groups- Natural Science and Social Science. Natural science deals with the nature or physical world. Natural science is broadly divided into: 1. Physical science (studies concerned with nonliving matter) 2. Life science or Biological science (studies concerned with living matter) Science and Travel: People used to travel on foot before the inventions of automobiles, aeroplanes and steam engines. They also used animal carts and camels for the purpose of moving from one place to another. However, the modern scientific inventions have proved to be of great significance as it has added speed to the area of travel. The quick means of transportation have decreased the distances and is a source of saving time. In fact it would not be wrong to regard that these inventions have added much peace to the lives of the modern men. Science and Communication: Science has also played a significant part in the development of the modern communication technology. Earlier people were living in isolation because of the slow means of communication. Now the well developed, efficient media have made it possible to communicate with each other more rapidly and quickly. The impact of mass media is enormous. The use of computers and televisions has made the world a global village where an event in one part of the world leaves an influence on the other. IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON SOCIETY Science is the organisation of knowledge in such a way that it commands the hidden potential in nature. This hidden potential is surfaced out by the subject of science through the process of understanding Science has proved to be of enormous beneficial nature. It has made lasting impact on regarding each and every field of human existence. Whether it is concerned with our day to day lives or whether it is related with the various modern developments which have resulted in elevating the living standards of the individuals. Demerits of Science: Every invention of science has got its own merits and demerits. The most serious invention that science has contributed to is the development of the weapons of mass destruction like the atom and nuclear bombs. The recent wars have greatly showed that how much destruction can be brought about with the use of these lethal weapons. In fact these modern inventions of science have resulted in the elevation of the anxiety and unrest in the modern societies. The significant contributions which the study of this subject has made are enumerated below. Science and Human Attitude: The various noteworthy scientific advances have helped the individuals in raising up of their self confidence .This subject has enabled the human beings to control and modify their needs and requirements. With greater understanding of the scientific phenomena human beings have now become more confident about the environmental issues as compared to the people in the past. In fact science has promoted and paved the way for the independent and logical thinking. Another notable demerit which the study of this subject has lead to the rise in the environmental deterioration. Day by day the pollution factor is increasing which has proved to be very toxic and harmful for the human health. Not only the human health it is also proving fatal for the animals as well as the existing plants. Science and Human Health: Before the development of modern medicinal factors, a large number of people used to loose their precious lives because of the unavailability of the sources and medicines for a proper health care. With the advancements of science now the human life expectancy rate has increased as the various modern developments in the field of health care has helped in warding off the The rapid developments of science and industrialization have also been divided the world: The developed and the undeveloped. This division has lead to a widening gap between the status and the living standards of people. There is economic disparity which has also given rise to class distinction. 5 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar GENERAL SCIENCE: 1. The temperature at which all substances have zero thermal energy - 273 degree celcious. 2. Any substance which when added to a reaction, alters the rate of the reaction but remains chemically unchanged at the end of the process is called - Catalyst. 3. The study of the inter-relations of animals and plants with their environment is called- Ecology. 4. Study of insects is called-Entomology. 5. A unit used to express the focal power of optical lenses- Dioptre. 6. The velocity that a body with less mass must achieve in order to escape from the gravitational attraction of a more massive body is calledEscape Velocity. 7. Laughing gas is chemically known as: Nitrous Oxide. 8. The blood vessels carrying blood from the heart to various parts of the body is calledArtery. 9. The distance travelled by light in one year is called - Light year. 10. An organism which derives its nourishment from another living organism is called- Parasite. 11. Newton's which law states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the force applied and takes place in the direction in which the force act Newton's second law of motion. 12. Which is the world's first man-made satellite- Sputnik-I. (4 Oct, 1957) 13. Which planet is the brightest of all the planetsVenus. 14. Small pieces of solid matter which are found scattered in the inter-planetary space of the solar system are known as- Meteoroids. 15. The largest gland in the body which is dark red in colour is- Liver. 16. Inadequate secretion of Insulin hormone causes which disease -Diabetes. 17. Common cold, Influenza, Chickenpox and Measles are caused due to the attack of Virus or Bacteria - Virus. 18. In which atmospheric layer are the communication satellite located- Ionosphere. 19. The scientific principle behind 'Fibre Optics' is – Total internal reflection of light. 20. Ginger is a stem and not a root, True or False True (because it has nodes and Internodes). 21. When we wind a watch which energy is stored - Potential Energy. 22. On which phenomena the process of Dialysis used on patient with affected kidneys is Based Osmosis. 23. When a piece of ice floating in a beaker of 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 6 water melts, the level of water will rise or fallRemains the same. Energy stored in a dry cell is - Chemical energy. When a cricketer lowers his hand while catching the ball, it saves him from injury due to - Conservation of momentum. Full form of AIDS is - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Chemical technology dealing with the conversion of base metals into gold is Alchemy. Subtances produced by micro-organism that kill or prevent growth of other microorganism is called - Antibiotics. Substances which react with acids to form salts is called - Base. The ancient oriental art of growing trees in dwarf form is called - Bonsai. What is the unit of heat - Calorie. The ability of a body to resist tension or compression and to recover its original shape and size when the stress is removed is called Elasticity. The negatively charged particles which revolve around the nucleus of the atom in certain orbits is called - Electron. The branch of biology dealing with study of Heredity is - Genetics. Kwashiorkor is caused due to the deficiency of - Protein. The branch of science which deals with study of nature and properties of light is calledOptics. The scale used to measure the magnitudes of earthquakes is called - Richter scale. The heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance through one degree celcius is called - Specific heat. The speed greater than the speed of sound is called- Supersonic speed. Volatile substance that incapacitates for a time by powerfully irritating the eyes, provoking tears is called - Tear gas. Who is the inventor of Dynamite - Alfred B. Nobel. The unit used to measure loudness of sound is - Decibel. The smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction is called - Atom. Substances used for destroying or stopping growth of micro-organisms in living tissue is Called -Antiseptic. Water that does not form lather with soap easily is called - Hard water. The lines drawn on maps joining the places having same barometric pressure is called - Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar Isobars. 47. Lymph differs from blood in not having - Red Blood Corpuscles. 48. Universal receivers can receive blood from Groups O, A, B and AB 49. Study of Grass is called - Agrostology. 50. Study of Tumor is called - Oncology. 51. Which physical property will be unaffected with increase in quantity - Density. 52. Oil spreads over the surface of water because - Oil has less surface tension than water. 53. In high mountaneous regions bleeding through nose occurs because - The pressure of the blood in the capillaries is higher than the outside air pressure. 54. Why does a man weigh more at the poles than at the equator - Gravitational pull is more at the poles. 55. A gas will behave as an ideal gas at - At very low pressure and high temperature. 56. Oology is the branch of science dealing with the study of -Birds egg. 57. Why does a drop of liquid assume a spherical shape - Because a sphere has the least surface tension 58. When cream is separated from milk the density of milk increases or decreasesIncreases 59. Diamond is harder than Graphite due to difference of -Crystalline structure. 60. Which combination of colours is the most convenient during day and night time-- Red and Green 61. An element which does not react with oxygen is - Helium 62. An instrument that measures and records the relative humidity of air is - Hygrometer 63. The different colours of different stars are due to the variation of- Temperature 64. Which is left when an hydrogen atom loses its electron - A proton 65. The fundamental scientific principle in the operation of a battery is - Oxidationreduction 66. Which metal is used to galvanise iron - Zinc 67. The instrument used to measure the force and velocity of the wind is- Anemometer 68. Edward Jenner is associated with - Small Pox 69. The scientist who explained about blood circulation for the first time was - William Harvey 70. Nitroglycerine is used as - An explosive 71. Solar Energy is due to the process of Fusion reactions 72. In a dry cell battery which are used as electrolytes - Ammonium Chloride and Zinc Chloride 73. Which types of waves are used in a night vision apparatus - Infrared waves 74. In order to stay over the same spot on the earth, a geostationary satellite has to be directly Above - The Equator 75. Water is used to cool the engines of cars, buses, trucks, etc. It is because water has- High specific heat 76. Due to contract of eyeball, a long-sighted eye can only see farther objects which is corrected by using - Convex lens 77. Rainwater collected after 30 to 40 minutes of raining is not suitable for drinking because it is Acidic 78. The refining of petroleum is done by the process of - Fractional Distillation Physical quantities which are completely described by a magnitude (size) alone are known as - Scalar quantities 79. Study of the abundance and reactions of chemical elements and molecules in the universe, and their interaction with radiation is called - Astrochemistry 80. Organelles which is known as the power house of the cells - Mitochondria 81. Photosynthesis takes place maximum in red colour and minimum in - Violet colour 82. Other name of White Blood Cells is Leukocytes 83. Other name of Red Blood Cells is Erythrocytes 84. Which antiseptic compound is present in Dettol – Chloroxylenol 85. What is a compound that is a white solid which absorbs water vapour from the air – Calcium chloride 86. To which product of equivalent weight and valency of an element is equal – Atomic weight 87. Which element forms the highest number of compounds in the periodic table – Silicon 88. How does addition of ethylene dibromide help to petrol – Elimination of lead oxide 89. What do we call the process of separation of pure water from impurities – Distillation 90. What is the name of gas which is present in both the natural gas and the biogas – Methane 91. Of which alloy the commonly used safety fusewire is made – Alloy of Tin and Lead 92. What is alcohol obtained in the saponification process – Glycerol 93. Which is used to dilute oxygen in the gas cylinders used by divers – Helium 94. What do cathode rays case when obstructed by metal –emission of X-rays 95. With which liquid is anomalous expansion 7 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar associated – Water 96. What is a tick paste of cement, sand and water called – Mortar 97. Ethanol containing 5% water by which name is it known – Rectified spirit 98. Of which Container radioactive materials should be kept – Pb 99. Which is not an anesthetic agent in surgical operations – Acetone 100. What is the percentage of Nitrogen, present in ammonium sulphate – 21% 101. Which is the nuclear particle having no mass and no charge, but only spin – Neutrino 102. The pH of fresh milk is 6. When it turns sour, what will be the pH – Less than 6 103. How must have metals used to make wires for safety fuses– Low resistivity and low melting point 104. Sodium stearate is a salt and how is it used – To make soap 105. Which are the two main constituents of granite– Iron and silica 106. Which method of water purification does not kill microorganism – Filtration 107. Which gase is supporter of combustion – Oxygen 108. By which was the presence of Cobalt. in Vitamin B-12 established for the first time – Borax-Bead test 109. Which metal can deposit copper from copper sulphate solution – Iron 110. Which group of gases contribute to the "Green House effect" – Carbon dioxide and Methane 111. On heating, Gypsum loses certain percentage of its water content and what does it become – Plaster of Paris 112. A liquid initially contracts when cooled down to 4 degree Celsius but on further cooling down to zero degree Celsius, it expands. What is the name of liquid – Water 113. Under which category Magnetic, electrostatic and gravitational forces come – Non-contact forces 114. No matter how far you stand from a mirror, your image appears erect, How is the mirror likely to be – Either plane or convex 115. Due to which Phenomenon are advanced sunrise and delayed sunset found in the sky – Refraction of sunlight 116. Due to which Phenomenon is the formation of colours in soap bubbles – Interference of light 117. On which principle a pressure cooker works –Elevation of boiling point of water by application of pressure 118. Why does pressure of a gas increases due to increase of its temperature– Kinetic energies of die gas molecules are higher 119. By which Newton’s may the weight of an object be assigned– Laws of gravitation 120. With which field is a current carrying conductor associated – A magnetic field 121. Which doesn't have any effect on velocity of sound – Pressure 122. Why does white light into its components – Due to dispersion 123. What type of lenses are used in movie projectors – Convex 124. During which radioactivity radiation is not emitted – Cathode rays 125. An object is undergoing a non-accelerated motion. 126. What is its rate of change in momentum – Zero 127. A particle is moving freely. Then its– kinetic energy is always greater than zero 128. If an object undergoes a uniform circular motion, then What will be– Its velocity changes 129. A motor vehicle is moving in a circle with a uniform speed. Where will be the net acceleration of the vehicle – towards the centre of circle 130. Which property of a proton may change while it moves freely in a magnetic field – Velocity 131. During sunrise and sunset, why does sun appears reddish-orange – Reddish-orange light is least scattered by the atmosphere 132. Why are ball bearings used in bicycles, cars, etc – The effective area of contact between the wheel and axle is reduced 133. By which Signal a television channel is characterised – Frequency of transmitted signal 134. What is a good conductor while carrying current – Electrically neutral 135. What is the device used for measuring the wavelength of X-rays – Bragg Spectrometer 136. Which is responsible for the working of Newton's colour disc experiment – Persistence of vision 137. Who is the founder, of quantum theory of radiation – Plank 138. What is Photon – The fundamental unit/quantum of Light 139. When does a liquid disturbed by stirring come to rest – Due to Viscosity 140. Study of Heavenly bodies is called –Astronomy 141. Study of bacteria and the diseases caused by them is called - Bacteriology 142. Science dealing with the origin and development of mankind is called Anthropology 8 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar 143. Study of cells is called - Cytology 144. Science dealing with the functions and the diseases of heart is called - Cardiology 145. Study of skin is called - Dermatology 146. Study of Blood Vascular System is called Angiology 147. Study of Fungi and fungus diseases is calledMycology 148. Study of Tumors is called -Oncology 149. ...
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