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Email: [email protected] Author is not responsible for any fact/information mentioned in this booklet. This is
a complied work. All contents had taken from different Internet sources. 3 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar SCIENCE CAPSULE
45. SHORT INTRODUCTION
230 HOT POINTS
ABBREVIATIONS (SCIENTIFIC &
LIST OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT
DISCOVERIES & INVENTIONS
CONTRIBUTIONS OF MUSLIM
SCIENTIFIC LAWS & THEORIES
VITAMINS & MINERALS
OUR SOLAR SYSTEM
WILD FIRE & URBAN FIRE
GLOBAL WARMING CAUSES
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
FIBER OPTICS SURVEILLANCE
CAUSES OF DISEASES
ATOM, MOLECULE & STRUCTURE OF
INTRODUCTION OF IMMUNIZATION
GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
BRAIN 46. 47.
63. 4 MILKY WAY
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: COMPUTER
INFORMATION TECHNLOGY: I/O
PROCESSING AND DATA STORAGE,
NETWORKING & INTERNET
TELECOMMUNICATIONS: BASICS OF
SURVEILLANCE & GPS & FIBER OPTIC
LAND SLIDES (LAND SLIP)
HARD WATER & SOFT WATER
HARD WATER & HEAVY WATER
NUCLEAR FISSION REACTION
NUCLEAR FUSION REACTION
SOLAR ENERGY & THERMAL ENERGY
BIO FUEL METHOD
NERVOUS SYSTEM & ENDOCRINE
FORMS OF ENERGY
SOME EQUIPMENT USED TO
SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF COMMON
PLANT/ TREES/ VEGETABLES
SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF ANIMALS
COMMON HUMAN DISEASES &
AFFECTED BODY PARTS
VIRAL DISEASES IN CROPS/ PLANTS
SOME FRUITS & THEIR EDIBLE PARTS
COMMON NAMES OF CHEMICAL
COMPOUNDS Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar dangerous diseases.
The revolutions in surgery and medicine the
infectious diseases like small pox, malaria, typhoid
etc. have been eradicated. Thus science has improved
the health standards of the people. SCIENCE: The word science comes from the Latin
word scientia which implies knowledge. The science
as subject has come to mean the systematic,
consistent and excellent study of the physical world
including everything than can be seen, observed or
detected in nature by the man and society and the
knowledge that grows out of such study. Usually
the science is characterized by the methodologies
and approaches of the hypothesises, postulates,
assumptions, theories and laws based
experimental observations and mathematical
conclusions. The science is broadly categorized into
two groups- Natural Science and Social Science.
Natural science deals with the nature or physical
Natural science is broadly divided into:
1. Physical science (studies concerned with nonliving matter)
2. Life science or Biological science (studies
concerned with living matter) Science and Travel: People used to travel on foot
before the inventions of automobiles, aeroplanes and
steam engines. They also used animal carts and
camels for the purpose of moving from one place to
another. However, the modern scientific inventions
have proved to be of great significance as it has added
speed to the area of travel. The quick means of
transportation have decreased the distances and is a
source of saving time. In fact it would not be wrong
to regard that these inventions have added much
peace to the lives of the modern men.
Science and Communication: Science has also
played a significant part in the development of the
modern communication technology. Earlier people
were living in isolation because of the slow means of
communication. Now the well developed, efficient
media have made it possible to communicate with
each other more rapidly and quickly. The impact of
mass media is enormous. The use of computers and
televisions has made the world a global village where
an event in one part of the world leaves an influence
on the other. IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON SOCIETY
Science is the organisation of knowledge in such a
way that it commands the hidden potential in nature.
This hidden potential is surfaced out by the subject
of science through the process of understanding
Science has proved to be of enormous beneficial
nature. It has made lasting impact on regarding each
and every field of human existence. Whether it is
concerned with our day to day lives or whether it is
related with the various modern developments
which have resulted in elevating the living standards
of the individuals. Demerits of Science: Every invention of science has
got its own merits and demerits. The most serious
invention that science has contributed to is the
development of the weapons of mass destruction like
the atom and nuclear bombs. The recent wars have
greatly showed that how much destruction can be
brought about with the use of these lethal weapons.
In fact these modern inventions of science have
resulted in the elevation of the anxiety and unrest in
the modern societies. The significant contributions which the study of this
subject has made are enumerated below.
Science and Human Attitude: The various
noteworthy scientific advances have helped the
individuals in raising up of their self confidence .This
subject has enabled the human beings to control and
modify their needs and requirements. With greater
understanding of the scientific phenomena human
beings have now become more confident about the
environmental issues as compared to the people in
the past. In fact science has promoted and paved the
way for the independent and logical thinking. Another notable demerit which the study of this
subject has lead to the rise in the environmental
deterioration. Day by day the pollution factor is
increasing which has proved to be very toxic and
harmful for the human health. Not only the human
health it is also proving fatal for the animals as well
as the existing plants. Science and Human Health: Before the development
of modern medicinal factors, a large number of
people used to loose their precious lives because of
the unavailability of the sources and medicines for a
proper health care. With the advancements of
science now the human life expectancy rate has
increased as the various modern developments in the
field of health care has helped in warding off the The rapid developments of science and
industrialization have also been divided the world:
The developed and the undeveloped. This division
has lead to a widening gap between the status and
the living standards of people. There is economic
disparity which has also given rise to class
distinction. 5 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar GENERAL SCIENCE:
1. The temperature at which all substances have
zero thermal energy - 273 degree celcious.
2. Any substance which when added to a reaction,
alters the rate of the reaction but remains
chemically unchanged at the end of the
process is called - Catalyst.
3. The study of the inter-relations of animals and
plants with their environment is called- Ecology.
4. Study of insects is called-Entomology.
5. A unit used to express the focal power of
optical lenses- Dioptre.
6. The velocity that a body with less mass must
achieve in order to escape from the gravitational
attraction of a more massive body is calledEscape Velocity.
7. Laughing gas is chemically known as: Nitrous
8. The blood vessels carrying blood from the
heart to various parts of the body is calledArtery.
9. The distance travelled by light in one year is
called - Light year.
10. An organism which derives its nourishment
from another living organism is called- Parasite.
11. Newton's which law states that the rate of
change of momentum of a body is directly
proportional to the force applied and takes
place in the direction in which the force act Newton's second law of motion.
12. Which is the world's first man-made
satellite- Sputnik-I. (4 Oct, 1957)
13. Which planet is the brightest of all the planetsVenus.
14. Small pieces of solid matter which are found
scattered in the inter-planetary space of the
solar system are known as- Meteoroids.
15. The largest gland in the body which is dark
red in colour is- Liver.
16. Inadequate secretion of Insulin hormone
causes which disease -Diabetes.
17. Common cold, Influenza, Chickenpox and
Measles are caused due to the attack of Virus or
Bacteria - Virus.
18. In which atmospheric layer are the
communication satellite located- Ionosphere.
19. The scientific principle behind 'Fibre Optics' is –
Total internal reflection of light.
20. Ginger is a stem and not a root, True or False True (because it has nodes and Internodes).
21. When we wind a watch which energy is
stored - Potential Energy.
22. On which phenomena the process of Dialysis
used on patient with affected kidneys is Based Osmosis.
23. When a piece of ice floating in a beaker of 24.
27. 28. 29.
32. 33. 34.
46. 6 water melts, the level of water will rise or fallRemains the same.
Energy stored in a dry cell is - Chemical energy.
When a cricketer lowers his hand while
catching the ball, it saves him from injury due to
- Conservation of momentum.
Full form of AIDS is - Acquired Immune
Chemical technology dealing with the
conversion of base metals into gold is Alchemy.
Subtances produced by micro-organism that
kill or prevent growth of other microorganism is called - Antibiotics.
Substances which react with acids to form
salts is called - Base.
The ancient oriental art of growing trees in
dwarf form is called - Bonsai.
What is the unit of heat - Calorie.
The ability of a body to resist tension or
compression and to recover its original shape
and size when the stress is removed is called Elasticity.
The negatively charged particles which
revolve around the nucleus of the atom in
certain orbits is called - Electron.
The branch of biology dealing with study of
Heredity is - Genetics.
Kwashiorkor is caused due to the deficiency
of - Protein.
The branch of science which deals with
study of nature and properties of light is calledOptics.
The scale used to measure the magnitudes of
earthquakes is called - Richter scale.
The heat required to raise the temperature of 1
kg of a substance through one degree celcius
is called - Specific heat.
The speed greater than the speed of sound is
called- Supersonic speed.
Volatile substance that incapacitates for a
time by powerfully irritating the eyes,
provoking tears is called - Tear gas.
Who is the inventor of Dynamite - Alfred B.
The unit used to measure loudness of sound
is - Decibel.
The smallest part of an element that can take
part in a chemical reaction is called - Atom.
Substances used for destroying or stopping
growth of micro-organisms in living tissue is
Water that does not form lather with soap
easily is called - Hard water.
The lines drawn on maps joining the places
having same barometric pressure is called - Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar Isobars.
47. Lymph differs from blood in not having - Red
48. Universal receivers can receive blood from Groups O, A, B and AB
49. Study of Grass is called - Agrostology.
50. Study of Tumor is called - Oncology.
51. Which physical property will be unaffected
with increase in quantity - Density.
52. Oil spreads over the surface of water because
- Oil has less surface tension than water.
53. In high mountaneous regions bleeding through
nose occurs because - The pressure of the
blood in the capillaries is higher than the
outside air pressure.
54. Why does a man weigh more at the poles than at
the equator - Gravitational pull is more at the
55. A gas will behave as an ideal gas at - At
very low pressure and high temperature.
56. Oology is the branch of science dealing with the
study of -Birds egg.
57. Why does a drop of liquid assume a spherical
shape - Because a sphere has the least surface
58. When cream is separated from milk the
density of milk increases or decreasesIncreases
59. Diamond is harder than Graphite due to
difference of -Crystalline structure.
60. Which combination of colours is the most
convenient during day and night time-- Red and
61. An element which does not react with
oxygen is - Helium
62. An instrument that measures and records the
relative humidity of air is - Hygrometer
63. The different colours of different stars are due to
the variation of- Temperature
64. Which is left when an hydrogen atom loses
its electron - A proton
65. The fundamental scientific principle in the
operation of a battery is - Oxidationreduction
66. Which metal is used to galvanise iron - Zinc
67. The instrument used to measure the force
and velocity of the wind is- Anemometer
68. Edward Jenner is associated with - Small Pox
69. The scientist who explained about blood
circulation for the first time was - William
70. Nitroglycerine is used as - An explosive
71. Solar Energy is due to the process of Fusion reactions
72. In a dry cell battery which are used as
electrolytes - Ammonium Chloride and Zinc Chloride
73. Which types of waves are used in a night
vision apparatus - Infrared waves
74. In order to stay over the same spot on the
earth, a geostationary satellite has to be directly
Above - The Equator
75. Water is used to cool the engines of cars,
buses, trucks, etc. It is because water has- High
76. Due to contract of eyeball, a long-sighted eye can
only see farther objects which is corrected by
using - Convex lens
77. Rainwater collected after 30 to 40 minutes of
raining is not suitable for drinking because it is Acidic
78. The refining of petroleum is done by the
process of - Fractional Distillation Physical
quantities which are completely described by a
magnitude (size) alone are known as - Scalar
79. Study of the abundance and reactions of
chemical elements and molecules in the
universe, and their interaction with radiation is
called - Astrochemistry
80. Organelles which is known as the power house
of the cells - Mitochondria
81. Photosynthesis takes place maximum in red
colour and minimum in - Violet colour
82. Other name of White Blood Cells is Leukocytes
83. Other name of Red Blood Cells is Erythrocytes
84. Which antiseptic compound is present in
Dettol – Chloroxylenol
85. What is a compound that is a white solid
which absorbs water vapour from the air –
86. To which product of equivalent weight and
valency of an element is equal – Atomic weight
87. Which element forms the highest number of
compounds in the periodic table – Silicon
88. How does addition of ethylene dibromide
help to petrol – Elimination of lead oxide
89. What do we call the process of separation of
pure water from impurities – Distillation
90. What is the name of gas which is present in
both the natural gas and the biogas – Methane
91. Of which alloy the commonly used safety fusewire is made – Alloy of Tin and Lead
92. What is alcohol obtained in the saponification
process – Glycerol
93. Which is used to dilute oxygen in the gas
cylinders used by divers – Helium
94. What do cathode rays case when obstructed by
metal –emission of X-rays
95. With which liquid is anomalous expansion 7 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar associated – Water
96. What is a tick paste of cement, sand and water
called – Mortar
97. Ethanol containing 5% water by which name
is it known – Rectified spirit
98. Of which Container radioactive materials
should be kept – Pb
99. Which is not an anesthetic agent in surgical
operations – Acetone
100. What is the percentage of Nitrogen, present
in ammonium sulphate – 21%
101. Which is the nuclear particle having no mass
and no charge, but only spin – Neutrino
102. The pH of fresh milk is 6. When it turns sour,
what will be the pH – Less than 6
103. How must have metals used to make wires for
safety fuses– Low resistivity and low melting
104. Sodium stearate is a salt and how is it used
– To make soap
105. Which are the two main constituents of
granite– Iron and silica
106. Which method of water purification does
not kill microorganism – Filtration
107. Which gase is supporter of combustion –
108. By which was the presence of Cobalt. in
Vitamin B-12 established for the first time –
109. Which metal can deposit copper from
copper sulphate solution – Iron
110. Which group of gases contribute to the "Green
House effect" – Carbon dioxide and Methane
111. On heating, Gypsum loses certain percentage
of its water content and what does it become –
Plaster of Paris
112. A liquid initially contracts when cooled
down to 4 degree Celsius but on further
cooling down to zero degree Celsius, it
expands. What is the name of liquid – Water
113. Under which category Magnetic,
electrostatic and gravitational forces come –
114. No matter how far you stand from a mirror,
your image appears erect, How is the mirror
likely to be – Either plane or convex
115. Due to which Phenomenon are advanced
sunrise and delayed sunset found in the sky
– Refraction of sunlight
116. Due to which Phenomenon is the formation of
colours in soap bubbles – Interference of light
117. On which principle a pressure cooker works
–Elevation of boiling point of water by
application of pressure
118. Why does pressure of a gas increases due to
increase of its temperature– Kinetic energies of die gas molecules are higher
119. By which Newton’s may the weight of an
object be assigned– Laws of gravitation
120. With which field is a current carrying
conductor associated – A magnetic field
121. Which doesn't have any effect on velocity of
sound – Pressure
122. Why does white light into its components –
Due to dispersion
123. What type of lenses are used in movie
projectors – Convex
124. During which radioactivity radiation is not
emitted – Cathode rays
125. An object is undergoing a non-accelerated
126. What is its rate of change in momentum – Zero
127. A particle is moving freely. Then its– kinetic
energy is always greater than zero
128. If an object undergoes a uniform circular
motion, then What will be– Its velocity
129. A motor vehicle is moving in a circle with a
uniform speed. Where will be the net
acceleration of the vehicle – towards the
centre of circle
130. Which property of a proton may change
while it moves freely in a magnetic field –
131. During sunrise and sunset, why does sun
appears reddish-orange – Reddish-orange
light is least scattered by the atmosphere
132. Why are ball bearings used in bicycles, cars,
etc – The effective area of contact between
the wheel and axle is reduced
133. By which Signal a television channel is
characterised – Frequency of transmitted
134. What is a good conductor while carrying
current – Electrically neutral
135. What is the device used for measuring the
wavelength of X-rays – Bragg Spectrometer
136. Which is responsible for the working of
Newton's colour disc experiment – Persistence
137. Who is the founder, of quantum theory of
radiation – Plank
138. What is Photon – The fundamental
unit/quantum of Light
139. When does a liquid disturbed by stirring
come to rest – Due to Viscosity
140. Study of Heavenly bodies is called –Astronomy
141. Study of bacteria and the diseases caused by
them is called - Bacteriology
142. Science dealing with the origin and
development of mankind is called Anthropology 8 Science Capsule by Aamir Mahar 143. Study of cells is called - Cytology
144. Science dealing with the functions and the
diseases of heart is called - Cardiology
145. Study of skin is called - Dermatology
146. Study of Blood Vascular System is called Angiology
147. Study of Fungi and fungus diseases is calledMycology
148. Study of Tumors is called -Oncology
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