Chemitry project.pdf - Digital Report Soap Soap Making Process Ingredients Ingredients ALEX Olive Oil Coconut Oil Castor Oil Lye Essential Oil and Water

Chemitry project.pdf - Digital Report Soap Soap Making...

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Unformatted text preview: Digital Report Soap Soap Making Process: Ingredients Ingredients: ● ● ● ● ● ALEX Olive Oil Coconut Oil Castor Oil Lye Essential Oil and Water Click on the words for definitions and explanations Olive oil ◍ Olive oil has many benefits for your skin when it is in soap! ◌ Relieve dry skin (Moisturize) ◌ Reduce scars ◌ For sensitive skin ◌ Minimize wrinkles ◌ ALSO KNOWN TO: ◌ Reduce eczema Olive oil is one ◌ Treat rashes of the acids we used in making our soap ALEX Olive Oil ◍ Olive oil has many properties to it in soap making! ◌ Low slippery lather ◌ No bubbles ◌ Makes for a softer soap ALEX Coconut oil ◍ Coconut oil is very similar to olive oil, and has many benefits for soap and your hands! ◌ Antibacterial ◌ Moisturized when used in proper amounts Coconut oil can be drying to the skin if used in large amount ALEX Coconut oil ◍ Coconut oil has many properties when used in soap making! ◌ Large fluffy bubbles ◌ Lots of lather ◌ High cleansing (Antibacterial) ◌ Hard bar ◌ White in color given to the soap Caster oil ◍ Castor oil has many benefits for your hands! ◌ Moisturizer ◌ Goes into deeper levels of skin ◌ Soft feel left on your hands ALEX Castor Oil ◍ Castor oil has many properties when it is added to soap making ◌ Counteracts the soap bubbles of coconut oil ◌ Increases lather ◌ Makes a mushy bar ◌ Thick and creamy feel ALEX Soap making process: Procedure 1. First measure 67.15g of olive oil in a plastic cup. 2. Then measure 13.6g of coconut oil in a beaker and melt it down to a liquid. 3. Measure 4.25g of castor oil in a plastic cup. 4. After you have measured all of the oils combined in a large container. Jaymie Soap making process: procedure ● For this step make sure that you are wearing goggles, aprons, closed shoes, and gloves 5. Measure 11.2g of lye into a little plastic cup. REMEMBER BE CAREFUL AROUND LYE. 6. After the lye is measured measure 30mL of water in a graduated cylinder. 7. Combined lye and water and stir constantly until dissolved. Jaymie Soap making process: procedure Jaymie 8. Make sure the lye solution and oils are at least 10 degrees of temperature between the two. ● Ex: lye solution= 35 degrees then the oils need to be from 35-45 degrees 9. Combined both lye solution and oils in the large container and begin mixing with a hand mixer, 10. Once the mixture appears to be the consistency of pudding you can add your essential oils if desired. (we used grapefruit) 11. Once you have mixed your essential oils in pour mixture into molds and let sit for at least 24 hours Soap making process: procedure 12. After the 24 hour is up, put a drop or two of water on your soap and gently stir with the end of the dropper. 13. Grab a pH tester and test to make sure your soap is not over a pH of 10. 14. Let soap set for another day, then take out of the molds. Jaymie Neutralization Reaction ● Neutralization reactions are chemical reactions formed between a strong base and a strong acid to form water and salt. ● They are also double displacement reactions! ● Neutralization reactions need a acid and a base. ○ Acid: Fatty oils (olive oil, coconut oil, and castor oil) ○ Base: Lye solution (water and lye) ● The name of the neutralization reaction in soap is called saponification. Jaymie Double Displacement Reactions ● In our soap our double displacement reaction was with our lye and water. ● All double displacement reactions have to be solutions. ● The outcome of a double displacement reaction will have one product equal a solution and another product equal a solid. ● To help find the outcomes we use the solubility rules. ● We do not have a full double displacement reaction in our soup because we did not add another solution to our lye solution. ○ We added our oils, which created our triglycerides. Jaymie Saponification: Fatty acids ● Our oils in our soap is the strong acid. Oils contain fatty acids inside of them. ● Fatty acids are separated into two categories called saturated and unsaturated fats. ○ Saturated fats- contains carbon-carbon single bonds. ○ Unsaturated fats- contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms. Jaymie Saponification: Triglycerides ● Triglycerides are basically a long chain of fats and oils that get saponified to make glycerol and soap. ● The long chain can be from plants or animals ○ In our soap our triglycerides is formed with plant oils (coconut oil, olive oil, and castor oil). ● This makes it where our soap is high in unsaturated fats and low in saturated fats. Triglycerides Jaymie Saponification: Soap ● Soap is considered a salt, either sodium base or potassium base. ● When triglycerides are mixed with a salt solution (NaOH/KOH), glycerol and soap form. Which is the process of saponification. In our soap we used a sodium base called NaOH or Lye ♥ Na+ OH- Triglycerides ( Fats and Oils chain ) SOAP Jaymie Soap molecule NONPOLAR POLAR Jaymie ● The soap molecule has one polar end and one nonpolar end. ● Some people call the polar end the “head” and the nonpolar the “tail”. ● The polar end of the molecule loves water and the nonpolar end repels water. ● The nonpolar end of soap latches on to dirt and grim, which then allows for the polar end of the molecule that loves water to latch on to the water. ● This is how soap cleans hands, clothes, ect. Conservation of Matter ● Conservation of matter states mass can change but matter stays the same. ● The only rule that occured in our soap for conservation of matter is that when temperature increases, pressure increases. ○ This is shown when we add water and it evaporates in the air. ○ So, when we first calculated our amount we had our water not very high in mL. ○ Then we realized we were going to have to add more matter because it will evaporate while we are mixing our lye in and while mixing our oils in, Jaymie Ionic and Covalent Compounds ● As we have seen before soap molecules have two different ends ○ The salt end of the soap is considered the polar ionic end or in other words “Hydrophilic end”. ○ The other end is the nonpolar covalent end or in other words “hydrophobic end”. Jaymie Ionic and Covalent compounds ● The reason the hydrophilic end likes water is because it has a hydrogen bond. ● The hydrophobic end repeals water because it is bonded/ “attracted” to the oils/dirt/germs that are also nonpolar. ● Our soap molecule head is an ionic bond between our hydroxide and sodium in our lye solution. ● Our tail is the covalent bond between our oils. Hydrophilic end/ likes water; hydrogen bond, ionic bond Hydrophobic end/ does not like water, bonded to oils and dirt Jaymie Concentration of Lye solution ● ● ● ● Concentration is another word for molarity. Molarity is how many moles of a substance per liter. Molarity is found by mass divided by volume (liters). To find the molarity we have to find the moles. ● After finding the moles we have to take the moles divided by liters. Jaymie Concentration of Lye solution Jaymie ● In order to divide the moles by liters, we have to concert our 30mL of water in to liters. ● There are 1,000 mL in one liter. So, take the mL divided by 1,000. ● For ours we got .03 since we used 30mL of water to make our solution. ● After finding the liters we divided our moles by our liters. CONCENTRATION(molarity)= 9.3 pH of Skin ● The average pH for a person's skin overall is about as 5.5. ● However, different part of the body’s skin can have different pH levels. ● For our skins benefit, we have to make sure that our soaps are not to acidic or to basic. ● Having to high of a pH in soap can ruin the natural oils on the human body. ● Also having a acidic soap, allows for less chance of bacteria to grow, since bacteria likes a grow in basic conditions. Jaymie pH of Skin Body ● Normal pH is about 6 to 7 Face: having to high of a pH in facial cleansers can ruin the skin's natural oils. ● Have a pH of about 4.5 to 5.5 because the face skin has a pH of 4.5 - 5.5. Hands ● Hand soaps have a pH of about 9-10. A hand normally has a pH of about 3-5. ● Jaymie pH of Soap ● All soaps have a different pH because of what it is used for. ● For an example, Facial soap has a pH of about 4.5 to 5.5. This is so then it can counteract the acidity in the skin as well. ● Our soap has a pH of 10, this is most commonly used as a hand soap because our hands have different levels of pH. ● Soaps can also be dangerous if they are have a pH of anything higher than 10. ● This is because our base was lye and lye is harmful to touch on our skin. Jaymie What is our soap used for? ● Our soap is going to be used as a hand soap. ● Depending on the pH of soap depends on what it is used for. ● Our soap has a pH of 10. ● Hand soaps normally have a pH of 10, which explains why our soap is best used for hand washing. ● Hands are normally a 3-5 pH. ● Using more acidic soap on the hands is beneficial because it is similar to the hand physiological acidic. Jaymie Soap Advertising Jaymie ...
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