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Soap Soap Making Process: Ingredients
● ALEX Olive Oil
Essential Oil and Water Click on the
explanations Olive oil
◍ Olive oil has many benefits for your
skin when it is in soap!
◌ Relieve dry skin (Moisturize)
◌ Reduce scars
◌ For sensitive skin
◌ Minimize wrinkles
◌ ALSO KNOWN TO:
◌ Reduce eczema
Olive oil is one
◌ Treat rashes
of the acids we
used in making
ALEX Olive Oil
◍ Olive oil has many properties to it in
◌ Low slippery lather
◌ No bubbles
◌ Makes for a softer soap ALEX Coconut oil
◍ Coconut oil is very similar to olive
oil, and has many benefits for soap and
◌ Moisturized when used in proper
Coconut oil can
be drying to the
skin if used in
ALEX Coconut oil
◍ Coconut oil has many properties when
used in soap making!
◌ Large fluffy bubbles
◌ Lots of lather
◌ High cleansing (Antibacterial)
◌ Hard bar
◌ White in color given to the soap Caster oil
◍ Castor oil has many benefits for your
◌ Goes into deeper levels of skin
◌ Soft feel left on your hands ALEX Castor Oil
◍ Castor oil has many properties when it
is added to soap making
◌ Counteracts the soap bubbles of
◌ Increases lather
◌ Makes a mushy bar
◌ Thick and creamy feel ALEX Soap making process: Procedure
1. First measure 67.15g of olive
oil in a plastic cup.
2. Then measure 13.6g of coconut
oil in a beaker and melt it down
to a liquid.
3. Measure 4.25g of castor oil in a
4. After you have measured all of
the oils combined in a large
Jaymie Soap making process: procedure
● For this step make sure that you are
wearing goggles, aprons, closed
shoes, and gloves
5. Measure 11.2g of lye into a little
plastic cup. REMEMBER BE CAREFUL AROUND
6. After the lye is measured measure
30mL of water in a graduated cylinder.
7. Combined lye and water and stir
constantly until dissolved.
Jaymie Soap making process: procedure
Jaymie 8. Make sure the lye solution and oils are at least 10 degrees
of temperature between the two.
● Ex: lye solution= 35 degrees then the oils need to be from
9. Combined both lye solution and oils in the large container
and begin mixing with a hand mixer,
10. Once the mixture appears to be the consistency of pudding
you can add your essential oils if desired. (we used
11. Once you have mixed your essential oils in pour
mixture into molds and let sit for at least 24 hours Soap making process: procedure
12. After the 24 hour is up, put a
drop or two of water on your soap and
gently stir with the end of the
13. Grab a pH tester and test to make
sure your soap is not over a pH of
14. Let soap set for another day,
then take out of the molds.
Jaymie Neutralization Reaction
● Neutralization reactions are chemical reactions
formed between a strong base and a strong acid to
form water and salt.
● They are also double displacement reactions!
● Neutralization reactions need a acid and a base.
○ Acid: Fatty oils (olive oil, coconut oil, and
○ Base: Lye solution (water and lye)
● The name of the neutralization reaction in soap is
Jaymie Double Displacement Reactions
● In our soap our double displacement reaction was with
our lye and water.
● All double displacement reactions have to be solutions.
● The outcome of a double displacement reaction will have
one product equal a solution and another product equal
● To help find the outcomes we use the solubility rules.
● We do not have a full double displacement reaction in
our soup because we did not add another solution to our
○ We added our oils, which created our triglycerides.
Jaymie Saponification: Fatty acids
● Our oils in our soap is the strong acid. Oils contain
fatty acids inside of them.
● Fatty acids are separated into two categories called
saturated and unsaturated fats.
○ Saturated fats- contains carbon-carbon single bonds.
○ Unsaturated fats- contain one or more double bonds
between carbon atoms. Jaymie Saponification: Triglycerides
● Triglycerides are basically a long chain of fats and
oils that get saponified to make glycerol and soap.
● The long chain can be from plants or animals
○ In our soap our triglycerides is formed with plant
oils (coconut oil, olive oil, and castor oil).
● This makes it where our soap is high in unsaturated fats
and low in saturated fats. Triglycerides
Jaymie Saponification: Soap
● Soap is considered a salt, either sodium base
or potassium base.
● When triglycerides are mixed with a salt
solution (NaOH/KOH), glycerol and soap form.
Which is the process of saponification. In our soap we
used a sodium
NaOH or Lye
OH- Triglycerides ( Fats and Oils chain ) SOAP Jaymie Soap molecule NONPOLAR POLAR Jaymie ● The soap molecule has one polar end and
one nonpolar end.
● Some people call the polar end the “head”
and the nonpolar the “tail”.
● The polar end of the molecule loves water
and the nonpolar end repels water.
● The nonpolar end of soap latches on to
dirt and grim, which then allows for the
polar end of the molecule that loves water
to latch on to the water.
● This is how soap cleans hands, clothes,
ect. Conservation of Matter
● Conservation of matter states mass can change but matter stays
● The only rule that occured in our soap for conservation of matter
is that when temperature increases, pressure increases.
○ This is shown when we add water and it evaporates in the air.
○ So, when we first calculated our amount we had our water not
very high in mL.
○ Then we realized we were going to have to add more matter
because it will evaporate while we are mixing our lye in and
while mixing our oils in,
Jaymie Ionic and Covalent Compounds
● As we have seen before soap
molecules have two different
○ The salt end of the soap
is considered the polar
ionic end or in other
words “Hydrophilic end”.
○ The other end is the
nonpolar covalent end or
in other words
Jaymie Ionic and Covalent compounds
● The reason the hydrophilic end likes water
is because it has a hydrogen bond.
● The hydrophobic end repeals water because
it is bonded/ “attracted” to the
oils/dirt/germs that are also nonpolar.
● Our soap molecule head is an ionic bond
between our hydroxide and sodium in our
● Our tail is the covalent bond between our
oils. Hydrophilic end/ likes water; hydrogen bond, ionic bond Hydrophobic end/ does not like water, bonded to oils and dirt Jaymie Concentration of Lye solution
● Concentration is another word for molarity.
Molarity is how many moles of a substance per liter.
Molarity is found by mass divided by volume (liters).
To find the molarity we have to find the moles.
● After finding the
moles we have to
take the moles
divided by liters. Jaymie Concentration of Lye solution
Jaymie ● In order to divide the moles by liters, we have to concert our
30mL of water in to liters.
● There are 1,000 mL in one liter. So, take the mL divided by
● For ours we got .03 since we used 30mL of water to make our
● After finding the
liters we divided our
moles by our liters. CONCENTRATION(molarity)= 9.3 pH of Skin
● The average pH for a person's skin overall is about as
● However, different part of the body’s skin can have
different pH levels.
● For our skins benefit, we have to make sure that our
soaps are not to acidic or to basic.
● Having to high of a pH in soap can ruin the natural oils
on the human body.
● Also having a acidic soap, allows for less chance of
bacteria to grow, since bacteria likes a grow in basic
Jaymie pH of Skin
Body ● Normal pH is about 6 to 7 Face: having to high of a pH
in facial cleansers can ruin
the skin's natural oils. ● Have a pH of about 4.5 to
5.5 because the face skin
has a pH of 4.5 - 5.5. Hands ● Hand soaps have a pH of
A hand normally has a pH of
about 3-5. ● Jaymie pH of Soap
● All soaps have a different pH because of what it is used
● For an example, Facial soap has a pH of about 4.5 to
5.5. This is so then it can counteract the acidity in
the skin as well.
● Our soap has a pH of 10, this is most commonly used as a
hand soap because our hands have different levels of pH.
● Soaps can also be dangerous if they are have a pH of
anything higher than 10.
● This is because our base was lye and lye is harmful to
touch on our skin.
Jaymie What is our soap used for?
● Our soap is going to be used as a hand
● Depending on the pH of soap depends on
what it is used for.
● Our soap has a pH of 10.
● Hand soaps normally have a pH of 10,
which explains why our soap is best
used for hand washing.
● Hands are normally a 3-5 pH.
● Using more acidic soap on the hands is
beneficial because it is similar to the
hand physiological acidic.
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