CJ 500 - Assingment #11 - Britney Hawkins.doc - CJ 500...

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Introduction to Learning and Behavior
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Chapter 9 / Exercise 3
Introduction to Learning and Behavior
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CJ 500 Overview of the Criminal Justice System Reading Assignment #11 Chapter 11: Sentencing Due Date: October 15, 2017 Key Terms 1. Aggravating circumstances- Accompanying or accessory condition, event, or fact that increases the culpability or liability of an accused. 2. Alternative sentencing - collective name in criminal justice for all the different ways, in which courts can punish someone, convicted of committing an offence, other than the custodial sentence (serving a prison term) or capital punishment (death). 3. Capital offense - crime, such as murder or betrayal of one's country that is treated so seriously that death may be considered an appropriate punishment. 4. Capital punishment - the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime. 5. Determinate sentence- A sentence to confinement for a fixed or minimum period that is specified by statute. 6. Deterrence - stopping something from happening. 7. Diversion- form of sentence in which the criminal offender joins a rehabilitation program, which will help remedy the behavior leading to the original arrest, and avoid conviction and a criminal record. 8. Equity- based on a judicial assessment of fairness as opposed to the strict and rigid rule of common law. 9. Gain time- inmate's opportunity to earn a reduction (if eligible) in his/her overall sentence imposed by the court. 10. General deterrence - refers to inducing others tempted to commit this offence not to do so. 11. Good time- time deducted from an inmate's sentence for good behavior while in prison.
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Introduction to Learning and Behavior
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Chapter 9 / Exercise 3
Introduction to Learning and Behavior
Honey/Powell
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12. Incapacitation- restriction of an individual's freedoms and liberties that they would normally have in society. 13. Indeterminate sentencing - sentence imposed for a crime that isn't given a definite duration. 14. Just deserts - punishment that one deserves 15. Justice reinvestment - is a data-driven approach to improve public safety, reduce corrections and related criminal justice spending, and reinvest savings in strategies that can decrease crime and strengthen neighborhoods. 16. Mandatory sentencing - sentences which a judicial officer is required to impose regardless of the circumstances of the offense. 17. Mitigating circumstances - conditions or happenings which do not excuse or justify criminal conduct, but are considered out of mercy or fairness in deciding the degree of the offense the prosecutor charges or influence reduction of the penalty upon conviction. 18. Presentence investigation - investigation into the history of person convicted of a crime before sentencing to determine if there are extenuating circumstances which should ameliorate the sentence or a history of criminal behavior to increase the harshness of the sentence. 19. Presumptive sentencing - state's attempt to run the criminal justice system without bias based on race or gender or the exercise of constitutional rights by the defendant.

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