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Unformatted text preview: This book is provided FREE with test registration by the Graduate Record Examinations Board. Graduate Record Examinations This practice book contains
one actual full-length GRE Chemistry Test test-taking strategies Become familiar with
test structure and content test instructions and answering procedures Compare your practice test results with the performance of those who took the test at a GRE administration. CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK Visit GRE Online at www.gre.org Note to Test Takers: Keep this practice book until you receive your score report. The book contains important information about content specifications and scoring. Copyright 2002 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE, ETS, the ETS logos, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, and GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK Table of Contents
Purpose of the GRE Subject Tests ........................ 3 Development of the Subject Tests ....................... 3 Content of the Chemistry Test ............................ 4 Preparing for a Subject Test ................................. 6 Test-Taking Strategies .......................................... 6 What Your Scores Mean ...................................... 7 Practice GRE Chemistry Test .............................. 9 Scoring Your Subject Test .................................. 51 Evaluating Your Performance ............................. 54 Answer Sheet ..................................................... 55 earned, letters of recommendation, and GRE General Test scores. For information about the appropriate use of GRE scores, write to GRE Program, Educational Testing Service, Mail Stop 57-L, Princeton, NJ 08541, or visit our Web site at www.gre.org/codelst.html. Development of the Subject Tests
Each new edition of a Subject Test is developed by a committee of examiners composed of professors in the subject who are on undergraduate and graduate faculties in different types of institutions and in different regions of the United States and Canada. In selecting members for each committee, the GRE Program seeks the advice of the appropriate professional associations in the subject. The content and scope of each test are specified and reviewed periodically by the committee of examiners. Test questions are written by the committee and by other faculty who are also subject-matter specialists and by subject-matter specialists at ETS. All questions proposed for the test are reviewed by the committee and revised as necessary. The accepted questions are assembled into a test in accordance with the content specifications developed by the committee to ensure adequate coverage of the various aspects of the field and, at the same time, to prevent overemphasis on any single topic. The entire test is then reviewed and approved by the committee. Subject-matter and measurement specialists on the ETS staff assist the committee, providing information and advice about methods of test construction and helping to prepare the questions and assemble the test. In addition, each test question is reviewed to eliminate language, symbols, or content considered potentially offensive, inappropriate for major subgroups of the test-taking population, or likely to perpetuate any negative attitude that may be conveyed to these subgroups. The test as a whole is also reviewed to ensure that the test questions, where applicable, include an appropriate balance of people in different groups and different roles. Purpose of the GRE Subject Tests
The GRE Subject Tests are designed to help graduate school admission committees and fellowship sponsors assess the qualifications of applicants in specific fields of study. The tests also provide you with an assessment of your own qualifications. Scores on the tests are intended to indicate knowledge of the subject matter emphasized in many undergraduate programs as preparation for graduate study. Because past achievement is usually a good indicator of future performance, the scores are helpful in predicting success in graduate study. Because the tests are standardized, the test scores permit comparison of students from different institutions with different undergraduate programs. For some Subject Tests, subscores are provided in addition to the total score; these subscores indicate the strengths and weaknesses of your preparation, and they may help you plan future studies. The GRE Board recommends that scores on the Subject Tests be considered in conjunction with other relevant information about applicants. Because numerous factors influence success in graduate school, reliance on a single measure to predict success is not advisable. Other indicators of competence typically include undergraduate transcripts showing courses taken and grades CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK 3 Because of the diversity of undergraduate curricula, it is not possible for a single test to cover all the material you may have studied. The examiners, therefore, select questions that test the basic knowledge and skills most important for successful graduate study in the particular field. The committee keeps the test up-to-date by regularly developing new editions and revising existing editions. In this way, the test content changes steadily but gradually, much like most curricula. In addition, curriculum surveys are conducted periodically to ensure that the content of a test reflects what is currently being taught in the undergraduate curriculum. After a new edition of a Subject Test is first administered, examinees' responses to each test question are analyzed in a variety of ways to determine whether each question functioned as expected. These analyses may reveal that a question is ambiguous, requires knowledge beyond the scope of the test, or is inappropriate for the total group or a particular subgroup of examinees taking the test. Answers to such questions are not used in computing scores. Following this analysis, the new test edition is equated to an existing test edition. In the equating process, statistical methods are used to assess the difficulty of the new test. Then scores are adjusted so that examinees who took a difficult edition of the test are not penalized, and examinees who took an easier edition of the test do not have an advantage. Variations in the number of questions in the different editions of the test are also taken into account in this process. Scores on the Subject Tests are reported as threedigit scaled scores with the third digit always zero. The maximum possible range for all Subject Test total scores is from 200 to 990. The actual range of scores for a particular Subject Test, however, may be smaller. The maximum possible range of Subject Test subscores is 20 to 99; however, the actual range of subscores for any test or test edition may be smaller than 20 to 99. Subject Test score interpretive information is provided in Interpreting Your GRE Scores, which you will receive with your GRE score report, and on the GRE Web site at www.gre.org/codelst.html. Content of the Chemistry Test
The test consists of about 136 multiple-choice questions. A periodic table is printed in the test booklet as well as a table of information (see page 10) presenting various physical constants and a few conversion factors among SI units. Whenever necessary, additional values of physical constants are printed with the text of the question. Test questions are constructed to simplify mathematical manipulations. As a result, neither calculators nor tables of logarithms are needed. If the solution to a problem requires the use of logarithms, the necessary values are included with the question. The content of the test emphasizes the four fields into which chemistry has been traditionally divided and some interrelationships among the fields. Because of these interrelationships, individual questions may test more than one field of chemistry. Some examinees may associate a particular question with one field, whereas other examinees may have encountered the same material in a different field. For example, the knowledge necessary to answer some questions classified as testing organic chemistry may well have been acquired in analytical chemistry courses by some examinees. Consequently, the emphases of the four fields indicated in the following outline of material covered by the test should not be considered definitive. I. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY -- 15% A. Data Acquisition and Use of Statistics -- Errors, statistical considerations B. Solutions and Standardization -- Concentration terms, primary standards C. Homogeneous Equilibria -- Acid-base, oxidation-reduction, complexometry D. Heterogeneous Equilibria -- Gravimetric analysis, solubility, precipitation titrations, chemical separations E. Instrumental Methods -- Electrochemical methods, spectroscopic methods, chromatographic methods, thermal methods, calibration of instruments 4 CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK F. Environmental Applications G. Radiochemical Methods -- Detectors, applications II. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY -- 25% A. General Chemistry -- Periodic trends, oxidation states, nuclear chemistry B. Ionic Substances -- Lattice geometries, lattice energies, ionic radii and radius/ ratio effects C. Covalent Molecular Substances -- Lewis diagrams, molecular point groups, VSEPR concept, valence bond description and hybridization, molecular orbital description, bond energies, covalent and van der Waals radii of the elements, intermolecular forces D. Metals and Semiconductors -- Structure, band theory, physical and chemical consequences of band theory E. Concepts of Acids and Bases -- BrnstedLowry approaches, Lewis theory, solvent system approaches F. Chemistry of the Main Group Elements -- Electronic structures, occurrences and recovery, physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds G. Chemistry of the Transition Elements -- Electronic structures, occurrences and recovery, physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds, coordination chemistry H. Special Topics -- Organometallic chemistry, catalysis, bioinorganic chemistry, applied solid-state chemistry, environmental chemistry III. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -- 30% A. Structure, Bonding, and Nomenclature -- Lewis structures, orbital hybridization, configuration and stereochemical notation, conformational analysis, systematic IUPAC nomenclature, spectroscopy (IR and 1H and 13 C NMR) B. Functional Groups -- Preparation, reactions, and interconversions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, dienes, alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, epoxides, sulfides, thiols, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, amines C. Reaction Mechanisms -- Nucleophilic displacements and addition, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, electrophilic additions, electrophilic aromatic substitutions, eliminations, Diels-Alder and other cycloadditions D. Reactive Intermediates -- Chemistry and nature of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes, enols E. Organometallics -- Preparation and reactions of Grignard and organolithium reagents, lithium organocuprates, and other modern main group and transition metal reagents and catalysts F. Special Topics -- Resonance, molecular orbital theory, catalysis, acid-base theory, carbon acidity, aromaticity, antiaromaticity, macromolecules, lipids, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, terpenes, asymmetric synthesis, orbital symmetry, polymers IV. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY -- 30% A. Thermodynamics -- First, second, and third laws, thermochemistry, ideal and real gases and solutions, Gibbs and Helmholtz energy, chemical potential, chemical equilibria, phase equilibria, colligative properties, statistical thermodynamics B. Quantum Chemistry and Applications to Spectroscopy -- Classical experiments, principles of quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, molecular spectroscopy C. Dynamics -- Experimental and theoretical chemical kinetics, solution and liquid dynamics, photochemistry CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK 5 Preparing for a Subject Test
GRE Subject Test questions are designed to measure skills and knowledge gained over a long period of time. Although you might increase your scores to some extent through preparation a few weeks or months before you take the test, last-minute cramming is unlikely to be of further help. The following information may be helpful. A general review of your college courses is probably the best preparation for the test. However, the test covers a broad range of subject matter, and no one is expected to be familiar with the content of every question. Use this practice book to become familiar with the types of questions in the GRE Chemistry Test, paying special attention to the directions. If you thoroughly understand the directions before you take the test, you will have more time during the test to focus on the questions themselves. All questions are of equal value; do not waste time pondering individual questions you find extremely difficult or unfamiliar. You may want to work through the test quite rapidly, first answering only the questions about which you feel confident, then going back and answering questions that require more thought, and concluding with the most difficult questions if there is time. If you decide to change an answer, make sure you completely erase it and fill in the oval corresponding to your desired answer. Questions for which you mark no answer or more than one answer are not counted in scoring. As a correction for haphazard guessing, onefourth of the number of questions you answer incorrectly is subtracted from the number of questions you answer correctly. It is improbable that mere guessing will improve your score significantly; it may even lower your score. If, however, you are not certain of the correct answer but have some knowledge of the question and are able to eliminate one or more of the answer choices, your chance of getting the right answer is improved, and it may be to your advantage to answer the question. Record all answers on your answer sheet. Answers recorded in your test book will not be counted. Do not wait until the last five minutes of a testing session to record answers on your answer sheet. Test-Taking Strategies
The questions in the practice test in this book illustrate the types of multiple-choice questions in the test. When you take the test, you will mark your answers on a separate machine-scorable answer sheet. Total testing time is two hours and fifty minutes; there are no separately timed sections. Following are some general test-taking strategies you may want to consider. Read the test directions carefully, and work as rapidly as you can without being careless. For each question, choose the best answer from the available options. 6 CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK What Your Scores Mean
Your raw score -- that is, the number of questions you answered correctly minus one-fourth of the number you answered incorrectly -- is converted to the scaled score that is reported. This conversion ensures that a scaled score reported for any edition of a Subject Test is comparable to the same scaled score earned on any other edition of the same test. Thus, equal scaled scores on a particular Subject Test indicate essentially equal levels of performance regardless of the test edition taken. Test scores should be compared only with other scores on the same Subject Test. (For example, a 680 on the Computer Science Test is not equivalent to a 680 on the Mathematics Test.) Before taking the test, you may find it useful to know approximately what raw scores would be required to obtain a certain scaled score. Several factors influence the conversion of your raw score to your scaled score, such as the difficulty of the test edition and the number of test questions included in the computation of your raw score. Based on recent editions of the Chemistry Test, the following table gives the range of raw scores associated with selected scaled scores for three different test editions. (Note that when the number of scored questions for a given test is greater than the range of possible scaled scores, it is likely that two or more raw scores will convert to the same scaled score.) The three test editions in the table that follows were selected to reflect varying degrees of difficulty. Examinees should note that future test editions may be somewhat more or less difficult than the test editions illustrated in the table. Range of Raw Scores* Needed to Earn Selected Scaled Scores on Three Chemistry Test Editions That Differ in Difficulty
Raw Scores Scaled Score Form A Form B Form C 900 115-117 113-115 112-114 800 93-94 89-90 88-89 700 70-71 64-66 63-65 600 47-48 40-41 39-40 Number of Questions Used to Compute Raw Score 135 135 133 * Raw Score = Number of correct answers minus one-fourth the number of incorrect answers, rounded to the nearest integer. For a particular test edition, there are many ways to earn the same raw score. For example, on the edition listed above as "Form A," a raw score of 70 through 71 would earn a scaled score of 700. Below are a few of the possible ways in which a scaled score of 700 could be earned on that edition. Examples of Ways to Earn a Scaled Score of 700 on the Edition Labeled as "Form A"
Number of Questions Questions Questions Questions Used Answered Answered Not to Compute Raw Score Correctly Incorrectly Answered Raw Score 70 70 0 65 135 70 76 25 34 135 70 83 51 1 135 71 71 0 64 135 71 77 24 34 135 71 83 49 3 135 CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK 7 Practice Test
To become familiar with how the administration will be conducted at the test center, first remove the answer sheet (pages 55 and 56). Then go to the back cover of the test book (page 50) and follow the instructions for completing the identification areas of the answer sheet. When you are ready to begin the test, note the time and begin marking your answers on the answer sheet. 8 CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK FORM GR0027 9 9 Material in the tables on pages 10 and 11 may be useful in answering the questions in this examination. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Scoring Your Subject Test
Chemistry Test scores typically range from 490 to 910. The range for different editions of a given test may vary because different editions are not of precisely the same difficulty. The differences in ranges among different editions of a given test, however, usually are small. This should be taken into account, especially when comparing two very high scores. The score conversion table on page 53 shows the score range for this edition of the test only. The worksheet on page 52 lists the correct answers to the questions. Columns are provided for you to mark whether you chose the correct (C) answer or an incorrect (I) answer to each question. Draw a line across any question you omitted, because it is not counted in the scoring. At the bottom of the page, enter the total number correct and the total number incorrect. Divide the total incorrect by 4 and subtract the resulting number from the total correct. This is the adjustment made for guessing. Then round the result to the nearest whole number. This will give you your raw total score. Use the total score conversion table to find the scaled total score that corresponds to your raw total score. Example: Suppose you chose the correct answers to 80 questions and incorrect answers to 46. Dividing 46 by 4 yields 11.5. Subtracting 11.5 from 80 equals 68.5, which is rounded to 69. The raw score of 69 corresponds to a scaled score of 690. CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK 51 Worksheet for the Chemistry Test, Form GR0027 Only Answer Key and Percentages* of Examinees Answering Each Question Correctly
QUESTION Number Answer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Correct (C) Incorrect (I) Total Score: C I/4 = ____________ Scaled Score (SS) = ____________ P+ 80 55 95 86 58 53 57 84 85 47 56 75 81 63 63 82 63 52 72 53 63 68 56 66 63 52 49 75 57 67 90 68 63 73 73 81 57 77 30 81 30 57 67 41 66 80 38 70 12 TOTAL C I QUESTION Number Answer 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 A B D D A D D C A D E C E D E C B C D A C E B C B E D C B A B B D A D D B E C B C D A A E E D A D B P+ 53 52 83 56 70 75 77 47 74 18 68 34 15 64 53 41 47 70 22 50 44 33 42 47 58 82 62 53 15 24 61 45 39 33 27 51 54 77 79 63 69 63 68 70 55 62 68 33 60 79 TOTAL C I QUESTION Number Answer 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 B A E C E E C B E E E D B B A E A C E C D A D E D E E D D D C D A B C B P+ 56 59 48 60 33 76 48 55 47 33 36 94 50 30 19 48 77 41 69 56 57 58 39 31 26 78 35 40 46 57 30 53 60 42 35 85 TOTAL C I **
B E D A C B B C D E C E B E B B B C A C E B B B D A E E B A A D E E D D B E C A A E C C C D D A E ** a sample of November 2000 examinees selected to represent all CHEMISTRY Test examinees tested between October 1, 1998 and September 30, 2001. ** Item 1 was not scored when this form of the test was originally administered. * The P+ column indicates the percent of CHEMISTRY Test examinees who answered each question correctly; it is based on 52 CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK Score Conversions and Percents Below* for GRE Chemistry Test, Form GR0027 Only
Raw Score Scaled Score % Raw Score Scaled Score % 133-135 131-132 129-130 126-128 124-125 122-123 120-121 118-119 115-117 113-114 111-112 109-110 106-108 104-105 102-103 100-101 97-99 95-96 93-94 91-92 88-90 86-87 84-85 82-83 79-81 77-78 75-76 72-74 70-71 980 970 960 950 940 930 920 910 900 890 880 870 860 850 840 830 820 810 800 790 780 770 760 750 740 730 720 710 700 99 99 99 99 98 97 96 95 94 92 90 88 87 85 83 81 79 77 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 61 59 57 55 68-69 65-67 63-64 61-62 59-60 56-58 54-55 52-53 49-51 47-48 45-46 42-44 40-41 38-39 35-37 33-34 31-32 28-30 26-27 24-25 21-23 19-20 17-18 14-16 12-13 10-11 7-9 5-6 3-4 0-2 690 680 670 660 650 640 630 620 610 600 590 580 570 560 550 540 530 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400 52 50 48 45 43 40 37 34 31 29 26 24 21 19 16 14 11 10 8 6 5 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 *Percentage scoring below the scaled score is based on the performance of 9,359 examinees who took the CHEMISTRY Test between October 1, 1998 and September 30, 2001. CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK 53 Evaluating Your Performance
Now that you have scored your test, you may wish to compare your performance with the performance of others who took this test. Both the worksheet on page 52 and the table on page 53 use performance data from GRE Chemistry Test examinees. The data in the worksheet on page 52 are based on the performance of a sample of the examinees who took this test in November 2000. This sample was selected to represent the total population of GRE Chemistry Test examinees tested between October 1998 and September 2001. The numbers in the column labeled "P+" on the worksheet indicate the percentages of examinees in this sample who answered each question correctly. You may use these numbers as a guide for evaluating your performance on each test question. The table on page 53 contains, for each scaled score, the percentage of examinees tested between October 1998 and September 2001 who received lower scores. Interpretive data based on the scores earned by examinees tested in this three-year period will be used by admissions officers in the 2002 03 testing year. These percentages appear in the score conversion table in a column to the right of the scaled scores. For example, in the percentage column opposite the scaled score of 690 is the number 52. This means that 52 percent of the GRE Chemistry Test examinees tested between October 1998 and September 2001 scored lower than 690. To compare yourself with this population, look at the percentage next to the scaled score you earned on the practice test. It is important to realize that the conditions under which you tested yourself were not exactly the same as those you will encounter at a test center. It is impossible to predict how different test-taking conditions will affect test performance, and this is only one factor that may account for differences between your practice test scores and your actual test scores. By comparing your performance on this practice test with the performance of other GRE Chemistry Test examinees, however, you will be able to determine your strengths and weaknesses and can then plan a program of study to prepare yourself for taking the GRE Chemistry Test under standard conditions. 54 CHEMISTRY TEST PRACTICE BOOK 54082-007625 U72M12 Printed in U.S.A. IN 994105 ...
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