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Sociology 2010: Introduction to SociologyStudy GuideExam ISociological Mindfulness●It enables us to see and appreciate the unique qualities that characterize our social worlds,particularly by being attuned to the patterns, conditions, processes, and relationships that constitute it. It also enables us to realize both social and personal benefits.●Working hard in your job is a good thing. But if you work for a company that makes weapons, cigarettes, or pornography, even companies that advertise or sell products, it can lead to death, disease, or misery to other people. Sociological Imagination●Refers to a quality of mind that enables its processor to grasp connections between his or her personal biography and larger, historically specific social developments (war, economic recession, deindustrialization, etc); it enables it possessor to see how their thoughts, feelings, actions, and personal troubles are shaped by large scale social and historical forces.●Drinking tea is an example because it has different perspectives and not just drinking tea: considered a tradition or ritual as many people choose to drink tea ritualistically each day at a certain time. Or its perspective could be in a social activity, like meeting for tea and its more focused on the activity within each other rather than just the tea. Troubles●Occurs within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with other; they live to do with his elf and with those limited areas of social life which he is directly and personally aware. ●Unemployment: when, in a city of 100,000, only one man is unemployed, that is his personal trouble, and for its relief we properly look to the character of the man, his skills, and his immediate opportunities. Issues●Has to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the range of his inner life. ●Unemployment: when in a nation of 50 million employees, 15 million men are unemployed, that is an issue, and we may not hope to find its solution within the range of opportunities open to any one individual. Theory●Logical explanations of social processes, or casual explanations about how and why events occur, and we sometimes begin with data or observations. [Example] Methods●Systematic procedures that sociologists use to make observations and refine and test theories. Inductive Reasoning●Sociologist begins with observations and attempt to make generalizations. Deductive Reasoning●Sociologist begins with a theoretical proposition and tests it against empirical observations.
Primary Socialization●The process by which children learn to become mature, responsible members of their society. ●Children learn their historically specific culture: shared language as well as rules, standards, and expectations for thinking, feeling and acting.