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Sam ThomasProfessor GonzalezHIS – 100 –Q271221 December 20176-3-2 Project 2The first use of the atomic bomb against Japan was used to end World War II. Traditionally the use of the bomb was thought to be necessary to avoid large American losses in an invasion of Japan (Walker, 2005, 312). Decades of research into this reasoning show that the actual number of casualties would have been closer to 5,000 or lower (Miles, 1985, 131). These losses were acceptable from a military standpoint considering the large numbers of troops that would have been required for an invasion of multiple small islands and the main island of Japan. The exact number of Japanese troops and positions were not known but it was clear that air and naval raids had severely impacted the military forces of Japan (Miles, 1985, 130). It has also traditionally held that Japanese forces were not close to surrender. Historian Peter Maslowski concludes the “likelihood…that the war would have ended without the use of the bomb or an invasion” (as cited by Walker, 2005, 329). Japanese leadership was actively pursuing options to end the war possibly with mediation from the Soviets (Morton, 1957, 343). These facts show that with clarifications of the unconditional surrender ultimatum Japan was considering or a military invasion with acceptable losses, surrender could have been obtained without the use of the bomb.