THESIS - Baumruk - Still evolving principle of universal jurisdiction.pdf - Charles University in Prague Faculty of Law Dissertation Thesis The Still

THESIS - Baumruk - Still evolving principle of universal jurisdiction.pdf

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Charles University in Prague Faculty of Law Dissertation Thesis The Still evolving Principle of Universal Jurisdiction Mgr. Petra Baumruk, LL.M. Supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Pavel Šturma, Dr.Sc. 2015
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ii I hereby declare that I elaborated this disserta tion thesis on the subject of ‘ The Still evolving Principle of Universal Jurisdiction independently and all sources and literature used were cited properly. This dissertation has not been used in order to be granted another or the same academic degree. Prague, May 2015
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iii I would like to express my deepest gratitude and sincerest appreciation to my advisor, Prof. JUDr. Pavel Š turma, Dr.Sc., for his advice and guidance throughout my PhD study. Writing up a thesis like this takes an enormous amount of time and patience; patience especially from those around you on a daily basis. Therefore I would also like to extend my gratitude to my family. Without their constant encouragement, I would not have managed. Especially I would like to thank my fiancé Ragnar Snorrason, who was always with me during the project and for his patience and constant support.
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iv “The j urisdiction to try crimes under international law is univers al” Attorney General of the State of Israel v. Eichmann, 36 Int’l L. Rep. 5, 26 (Dist. Ct. Jerusalem 12 December 1961)
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v TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................................... iii List of Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... vii 1 I NTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 T OPIC ....................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 S COPE AND L IMITS O UTLINE OF THE P ROBLEM .................................................................... 3 1.2.1 International Criminal Law, Human Rights and Humanitarian Law ................................. 7 1.3 A IM OF THE S TUDY AND C ENTRAL Q UESTIONS ...................................................................... 7 1.4 S TRUCTURE OF THE S TUDY .................................................................................................... 10 P ART I G ENERAL P ART : N ATURE OF U NIVERSAL J URISDICTION 2 J URISDICTIONAL R EGIME IN I NTERNATIONAL L AW ............................................................... 12 2.1 T HE C ONCEPT OF J URISDICTION G ENERAL O VERVIEW ...................................................... 13 2.1.1 Forms of Jurisdiction ....................................................................................................... 16 2.1.2 Principle of State Sovereignty in the 21st Century .......................................................... 18 2.2 T RADITIONAL L EGAL B ASES ON WHICH J URISDICTION MAY BE E XERCISED ........................ 21 2.2.1 Jurisdiction with a Specific Link ..................................................................................... 21 2.2.1.1 Territorial Jurisdiction ............................................................................................ 21 2.2.2 Extraterritorial Jurisdiction with a Specific Link ............................................................. 24 2.2.2.1 Nationality Jurisdiction ........................................................................................... 24 2.2.2.2 Passive Personality Jurisdiction .............................................................................. 25 2.2.2.3 Protective Jurisdiction ............................................................................................. 26 2.2.3 Extraterritorial Jurisdiction without a Specific Link ........................................................ 27 2.2.3.1 Universal Jurisdiction ............................................................................................. 27 2.3 J URISDICTIONAL C ONFLICTS - I S T HERE A H IERARCHY ? ...................................................... 29 2.3.1 Importance of the Lotus Case .......................................................................................... 33 2.4 J URISDICTION OF THE I NTERNATIONAL C RIMINAL C OURT ................................................... 35 2.5 S UMMARY .............................................................................................................................. 37 3 F ORMATION AND I MPLICATION OF U NIVERSAL J URISDICTION ............................................. 40 3.1 F ROM P IRACY TO M ODERN A PPLICATION OF J US C OGENS C RIMES ...................................... 42 3.1.1 Origins of Universal Jurisdiction ..................................................................................... 42 3.1.2 Development following the Second World War .............................................................. 47 3.1.2.1 The Eichmann Trial and its Reliance on Universal Jurisdiction ............................. 53 3.1.2.2 From Demjanjuk to Pinochet ................................................................................... 55 3.1.3 Modern Application ......................................................................................................... 59 3.1.3.1 The Belgian Law and the Arrest Warrant Case ....................................................... 59 3.1.3.2 The Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction ............................................... 61 3.1.3.3 Debates undertaken by the UN General Assembly Sixth Committee ....................... 62 3.2 U NIVERSAL J URISDICTION C LARIFYING THE B ASIC C ONCEPT ........................................... 64 3.2.1 Conditional or Absolute Universal Jurisdiction ............................................................... 66 3.2.1.1 Pros and Cons of Absolute Jurisdiction
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