Running head: DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES 1 Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Tonya Atkins Walden University Advanced Pathophysiology NURS - 6501C June 23, 2018
DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES 2 Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Diagnosing diseases and health complications are important for establishing treatment methods and plans. Certain diseases and conditions may have signs and symptoms that are like other conditions, which may cause incorrect diagnoses. An incorrect diagnosis can lead to inadequate treatment, or a failure in treating a patient, thus worsening that patient’s condition. Various diseases of the veins and arteries have similar symptoms; therefore, professionals must use proper pathophysiology and epidemiology procedures. Adequate conduction of the procedures will lead to accurate diagnoses of the conditions, thus establishing the most effective treatment plan for patients. When a patient presents disorders of the veins and arteries, medical professionals need to explore the epidemiology and pathophysiology procedures with the patient —that alone will help establish a treatment plan for the disorders. This paper will critically examine two select conditions, namely chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). I will also examine an additional potential genetic influence behind the conditions and will present key finding. Comparison of the Pathophysiology of CVI and DVT Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) refers to a condition characterized by inadequate venous return, which is recorded over a long period (Huether & McCance, 2017). On the one hand, various studies and research have shown that the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency is not fully known. Currently, the disease can be divided into two parts, namely reflux or obstruction, or a combination of both. Venous reflux is attributed to various mechanisms, with the main ones being inflammation of the vessel wall, venous valve incompetence, venous hypertension, as well as hemodynamic factors. The named mechanisms contribute to the dysfunctional pump mechanism for instance, with reference to patients that are
DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES 3 immobile or ones with stiff joints (Santler & Goerge, 2017). CVI is attributed to venous hypertension of diseased veins through a series of events. The series of events include an increase in venous pressure, which transcends the venules to the capillaries, thus obstructing flow. The next occurrence is low-flow states within the capillaries, which causes the trapping of leukocyte. The release of proteolytic enzymes and oxygen free radicals by the trapped leukocytes occur and cause damage to capillary basement membranes, thus the next event in the series. The leaking of plasma proteins into surrounding tissue form a fibrin cuff then occurs, which is followed by decreased delivery of oxygen to the tissues from interstitial fibrin and resultant edema, causing local hypoxia. Lastly, inflammation and tissue loss occurs. Obstruction results
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