ANP 320 exam 2 - Platz 1 1. Freud focused many of his...

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Platz 1 1. Freud focused many of his studies on analyzing dreams and the subconscious; he analyzed religion, as well as art, literature, and even politics, in a similar manner. Much like his beliefs regarding dreams, he thought religion held the clues to repressed desires. He saw religion as a delusion void of any reality. Freud viewed religion as an institution that symbolically expressed feelings that could not be expressed in reality. He believed most people used religion as a way to re-channel their built up tension, which he explained, was caused by their desires to seek pleasures they had accepted not to seek directly. According to Freud, civilization was built on sublimated desire. He perceived that people in the present experience conflict because humanity in the past experienced conflict, and that each person relives this past. Contrary to Freud’s disbelief in religion’s reality, Durkheim and Harding saw truth in religion. They challenged that the understanding of religion as illusion or delusion was false. According to Durkheim, “various religions generally pass as being quite unequal in value and dignity; it is said that they do not all contain the same quota of truth.” Durkheim and Harding felt present religions should not be compared with past religions. Their view challenged that the theoretical importance, which has sometimes been attributed to primitive religions, has come to pass as a sign of a systematic hostility towards all religions. Harding observed, “social scientists through a variety of means generally do not let themselves get close enough to ‘belief’ to understand it, or, for that matter, even to see what it is.” Durkheim and Harding chose to understand religion as real and see truth in belief. According to their view, the distance between disbelief and belief is much shorter than many think. Harding says that disbelief can be a conscious or an unconscious refusal to
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Platz 2 accept a particular version of reality; likewise, belief also involves an unconscious willingness to join a narrative tradition of knowing and being through storytelling. Durkheim added that one must know how to go underneath the symbol to its meaning and the reality it represents. Durkheim and Harding believe that being constructed of social elements does not make religion devoid of all objective value. In fact, some ideas of religious origin still remain at the foundation of human intelligence, which is undeniably valuable to humanity.
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Platz 3 2. According to Gramsci’s Political Thought , ideology is more than a system of ideas; it is a set of beliefs that organizes society, including inequalities. He defined ideology as: having a material existence in practical activities, such as politics; providing people with rules of practical conduct and moral behavior, comparable to the understanding of a religion in the secular sense of a unity of faith between the conception of the world and a corresponding norm of conduct; and as the cement of social
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ANP 320 exam 2 - Platz 1 1. Freud focused many of his...

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