lec2-isa_1 - EEM 486: Computer Architecture Lecture 2 MIPS...

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EEM 486 EEM 486: Computer Architecture Lecture 2 MIPS Instruction Set Architecture
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Lec 2.2 Ass emb ly Lan gua ge Basic job of a CPU: execute lots of instructions Instructions are the primitive operations that the CPU may execute Different CPUs implement different sets of instructions The set of instructions a particular CPU implements is an Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Examples: Intel 80x86 (Pentium 4), IBM/Motorola PowerPC (Macintosh), MIPS, Intel IA64, . ..
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Lec 2.3 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) “... the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls the logic design, and the physical implementation.” Amdahl, Blaaw, and Brooks, 1964
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Lec 2.4 ISA instruction set software hardware
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Lec 2.5 ISA swap(int v[], int k) {int temp; temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; } swap: muli $2, $5,4 add $2, $4,$2 lw $15, 0($2) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2) sw $15, 4($2) jr $31 00000000101000010000000000011000 00000000100011100001100000100001 10001100011000100000000000000000 10001100111100100000000000000100 10101100111100100000000000000000 10101100011000100000000000000100 00000011111000000000000000001000 Binary machine language program (for MIPS) C compiler Assembler Assembly language program (for MIPS) High-level language program (in C)
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Lec 2.6 Instru ction Set Archi tectur es Early trend was to add more and more instructions to new CPUs to do elaborate operations VAX architecture had an instruction to multiply polynomials! RISC philosophy – Reduced Instruction Set Computing Keep the instruction set small and simple, makes it easier to build fast hardware. Let software do complicated operations by composing simpler ones.
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Lec 2.7 MI PS Arc hit ect ure MIPS – semiconductor company that built one of the first commercial RISC architectures We will study the MIPS architecture in some detail in this class Why MIPS instead of Intel 80x86? MIPS is simple, elegant. Don’t want to get bogged down in gritty details. MIPS widely used in embedded apps, x86 little used in embedded, and more embedded computers than PCs
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Lec 2.8 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1998 2000 2001 2002 1999 Other SPARC Hitachi SH PowerPC Motorola 68K MIPS IA-32 ARM
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Lec 2.9 Assembly Variables: Registers Unlike HLL like C or Java, assembly cannot use variables Why not? Keep hardware simple Assembly operands are registers limited number of special locations built directly into the hardware operations can only be performed on these! Benefit: Since registers are directly in hardware, they are very fast (faster than 1 billionth of a second)
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Lec 2.10 Assembly Variables: Registers Drawback: Since registers are in hardware, there are a predetermined number of them Solution: MIPS code must be very carefully put together to efficiently use registers How many registers?
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Lec 2.11 Determining the number of registers? Design principle: Smaller is faster - A large number of registers would increase the clock cycle time Balance the craving of programs for more registers with the desire to keep the clock cycle fast 32 registers in MIPS Each MIPS register is 32 bits wide Groups of 32 bits called a word in MIPS
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Lec 2.12 Assembly Variables: Registers
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lec2-isa_1 - EEM 486: Computer Architecture Lecture 2 MIPS...

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