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IR361_Study_guide

IR361_Study_guide - Overview of Kashmir State of Jammu and...

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Overview of Kashmir Separatist Sentiment is strongest in the valley Muslims there feel most alienated from Indian government and closest to Kashmiris on the other side- Azad Kashmir- in Pakistan, and to Pakistanis more generally. Groups seek to pursue their goals through normal politics, but when they are repressed or otherwise denied their goals, they then pursue separatism. But separatism declined as the costs of violence spiraled and as India worked to regain its legitimacy in Kashmir. The divisions within the Kashmiris are quite important Significantly complicate any efforts to build a lasting peace (As evident in 2004- bilateral talks between Pakistan and India that exclude Kashmiri parties) “How and what has India done to govern Kashmir and how have these efforts shaped separatism within the contested territory?” India initially promised Kashmir significant autonomy and an eventual plebiscite on its future Article 370 of India’s constitution gave the state of Jammu and Kashmir a special status, with greater autonomy than other federal states. However, from the mid-1960s onward, India sought to integrate Jammu and Kashmir more tightly Irredentism -Wants to add territory to their country (Due to similarities between the states- ethnic/ historical Secessionism -To break away: When one state wants to break away and become autonomous Jammu -Hindu -Sikh Ladakh -Shia Muslims -Buddhists Valley of Kashmir -Sunni Muslims State of Jammu and Kashmir “Separatism”
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into the rest of the country. Why does Pakistan intervene, despite the high costs that are imposed on them? These may have caused/provoked Pakistan in 1965, to start a second WW between the two countries. 1. 1987 election in Kashmir as a key turning point: tainting of the National Congerence (in the eyes of the Kashmiris) and election was apparently marred by vote rigging. 2. HINDU NATIONALISM in the form of BJP- increased the sense of threat and alienation perceived by Muslims in Kashmir. BUREAUCRATIC SELF INTEREST: The Kashmir issue increases the power, prestige and the resources of the Pakistan military. The NUCLEARIZATION of SOUTH ASIA may explain the increased IRREDENTISM of the 1990s- Ganguly argues that the joint development of nuclear weapons by India- Pakistan may have allowed the latter to engage in more aggressive foreign policies. (STABILITY-INSTABILITY PARADOX) But why would Pakistan want to act aggressively at all? The nuclear balance does not compel Pakistan to seek to control Kashmir or engage in conflict- it simply makes it possible CONCLUSION: -International costs of aggressive foreign policies are not necessarily sufficient to stop a country from engaging in irredentism if DOMESTIC PRESSURES are STRONG ENOUGH.
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