STUDY_STUDY - Future Prospects for Southeast Asia Approach...

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Future Prospects for Southeast Asia Approach these readings and classes by trying to pull together the material in the course in order to draw broad lessons about peace and stability in South/Southeast Asia. This is particularly important in order to prepare for your comprehensive final exam essay Alan Collins, Chapter 7, “Security Broadly Cast: From the South China Sea to the War on Terrorism The South China Sea Dispute - Two main Claims to South China Sea islands: o Paracel Islands Vietnam Historic grounds China Historic grounds o Spratly Islands Philippines Geographical proximity Malaysia A Number of reefs fall within its continental shelf Brunei Based on its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) Taiwan Vietnam Historic grounds China Historic grounds - States have attempted to strengthen their claims by: publicizing maps showing their claims, granting concessions to oil companies in their claimed areas, building structures in these areas, stationing troops on some reefs (all but Brunei) - Potential flashpoint o Many security issues, economic consequences, can impact extraregional powers (Japan and US) - Environmental and Economic Security issues could be regarded as secondary causes of conflict o Conflicts can arise where states seek to protect their resources (from governmental and nongovernmental actors), where environmental conditions force people to migrate to other areas to sustain livelihoods environmental/economic concerns manifest to the state as security problems in the military field - 1. Resource scarity=key environmental/economic security issue that has led to tension o Nonrenewable Oil and Gas
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Economic development in Asia has increased demands in many Asian states China beame new importer as of 1993 o One of world’s ten largest oil importers has much interest in availability of oil in South China Sea o Renewable Fish Main source of protein for 1 billion Asians Of the total Asian fish catch, fisheries in SEAsia account for 23% Overfishing = most direct problem o Effects Threat to people’s welfare and livelihoods (human security) because fishing is a source of protein/employment Reduction in fish encourages fishermen either to illegally fish in other states’ maritime zones or to fish in areas subject to competing claims o Also soil erosion, sewage discharge, destruction of coral reefs, depletion of mangrove forests/sea grass/estuaries/wetlands - 2. Potential Disruption to transportation = another economic security issue o 41,000 ships a year pass through the South China Sea Double the number through the Suez Triple the number through Panama o To the south of the SCSea = Strait of Malacca Connects SCSea to Indian Ocean o To the north of the SCSea = Taiwan Strait Connects SCSea to the Pacific o Free Movement along the sea lines of communication (SLORC) imperative to the economic survival and prosperity of a number of Asian states, including Japan
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STUDY_STUDY - Future Prospects for Southeast Asia Approach...

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