outbreak of diarrhoea.docx - Diarrhoea outbreak case study...

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Diarrhoea outbreak case study Student’s Name: Professor’s Name: University of Affiliation: Course Title: Date of Submission: Abstract An outbreak of diarrhoea occurred among the passengers and the crew aboard the cruise ship Warped Imagination enroute to Miami from a Caribbean voyage. 67 cases of illness among the 2,500 passengers and 3 cases of illness among the 1,200 crew had been recorded by the fifth day since the outbreak began. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a team of experts in the Vessel Sanitation Program to conduct an intensive case study and come up with the possible causes of the outbreak of the diarrheal illness and recommend possible ways to curb the spread of the illness. This report entails findings from the investigation and the possible recommendations of controlling outbreak before the ship docks in Miami.
Name 2 Introduction Diarrhoea refers to the condition of frequently passing loose and watery stools by a person. It affects most people frequently and in most cases is not a big issue of concern as it normally disappears within several days. However, diarrhoea can be much disgusting and unpleasant if it gets more serious and can lead to death if not treated in time. It is thus better to understand the causes of the illness so as to understand the possible treatment suitable[Dea96]. Diarrhoea is caused by many aspects such as viruses, parasites and bacteria. Bowel diarrhoea ( gastroenteritis ) is caused by viruses such as rotavirus or norovirus , bacteria such as Escherichia coli and campylobacter which are mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated food and by parasites such as ones that cause giardiasis that are spread through drinking contaminated water. Diarrhoea can also be as a result of food allergy, irritable bowel syndrome or medication [Joh99]. Once infected by diarrhoea, one will experience urges to empty his/her bowels, the result of which as a loose and watery stool. The passing of watery stool causes dehydration which may cause drowsiness, dizziness and passing of urine infrequently. Other symptoms of diarrhoea include weight loss, persistent vomiting, blood in stool, and severe stomach ache. Care should be taken in treating the diarrheal illness early enough before it becomes severe[Dea96] . Case definition The case is a population consisting of passengers and crew members aboard a cruise ship who had consumed food at different places in the ports of call and also on board in the ship’s buffet and started experiencing diarrhoea and vomiting [Sta11].
Name 3 Case findings As a way of finding the cause of the outbreak, we asked the chief medical officer of the ship to provide us with the log file containing all the data about the illnesses of the crew and passengers on board. The ship had made stops at Key West, Ocho Rios, Cozunel, Belize and Grand Cayman but the remaining stops at other ports of call have been cancelled as a precaution against the capacity of the medical staff being overwhelmed by the increasing load of victims requiring IV therapy. The ship’s chief medical officer had put all sick passengers and crew on

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