BLOODTERMS and Concepts: Blood (fluid connective tissue, specific formed elements, plasma) Hematology = study of blood.Blood is a type of connective tissue. It is the only fluid connective tissue in thehuman bodyFluid portion of blood, which consists of 91% water and the rest are solutes - electrolytes and proteins (ALBUMIN accounts for 58% of plasma proteins and it is important in transportation and the movement of water between the tissues and the bloodFORMED ELEMENTS= cells and cell fragments. Composes approximately 45% of whole blood.1. Red blood cells (RBCs) = erythrocytes2. White blood cells (WBCs) = leukocytes3. Platelets = thrombocytesWhat is the pH of blood?pH = 7.35 - 7.45What are hemocytoblasts and where are they found?Stem cells and they are found in the bone marrowWhat are the 2 lineages of formed elements and which formed elements belong to each?The myeloid lineage and the lymphoidlineageMyeloid lineage– these would be RBCs, platelets and most WBCs (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes).Lymphoid lineageis composed of only the lymphocytes, a special type of WBC.RBC’sKnow about RBCs, (erythrocytes) - shape, function, life span, what is the function of hemoglobin? The biconcave shape will result in increased surface area for gas diffusion AND gives the cell more flexibility to fit through the small vessels.Compose more than 95% of formed elements.Carries HgbRBCs can only live for 110 - 120 daysWhat is a reticulocyte? An immature red blood cell without a nucleus, having a granular or reticulated appearance when suitably stained.What is a HCT? 38% - 45% in females and 41% - 47% maleWhat increases the amount of erythropoietin (EPO) that is released? HypoxiaHow does an increase in erythropoietin affect the hematocrit?Hypoxia stimulates EPO production which increases RBC
Know the connection between recombinant erythropoietin and dialysis. Renal failure patients may lack erythropoietin and therefore suffer a low HCT, often one half the normal level. RECOMBINANT ERYTHROPOIETIN can be given.What effect does an increase in altitude have on a HCT?You produce more RBC in response to the lesser O2 levelsWhere are most of the RBC’s destroyed when they’re old?Because the breakdown products are recycledWhat happens to hemoglobin when it is spilled from old RBCs? (globin, iron and bilirubin)GLOBIN: This is a protein which will eventually be broken into AMINO ACIDS and used by cells in protein synthesis.
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