BIO 309D S08 Lec3 - Cell Structure and Function Read chap....

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Unformatted text preview: Cell Structure and Function Read chap. 19 pages 406-412 Chapter 21a. Pgs 469-474 Cell Theory Cell is the smallest unit of life All living organisms are composed of cells Cells come from pre-existing cells Characteristics of All Cells 1. Cells are very small Lower limit: how small a cell can be, dictated by the necessity of cells internal components - are very small but must be big enough to fit internal shit. Upper limit: Cannot exceed the volume that can be nourished by materials passing through the membrane Surface area-to-volume ratio - (surface area/volume) 2. Cells must obtain energy and nutrients 3. Cells contain DNA The genetic material Organized into chromosomes (100s of thousands of genes) 4. Cells contain cytoplasm Cytosol: semi-fluid substance inside cell (aqueous solution, water is the solvent) Cytoplasm: cytosol + all suspended materials (includes organelles and ribosomes) 5. Cells contain ribosomes Particles composed of proteins and RNA Not considered organelles b/c they are not bound by a membrane Site of protein synthesis 6. Cells are bound by plasma membrane Cells are very small 1 m 0.1 nm 10 m 0.1 m 1 cm 1 mm 100 m 10 m 1 m 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm Length of some nerve and muscle cells Chicken egg Frog egg Most plant and Animal cells Smallest bacteria Viruses Ribosomes Proteins Lipids Small molecules Atoms Nucleus Most bacteria Mitochondrion Unaided eye Light Microscope Electron microscope Human height Measurements 1 centimeter (cm) = 10- 2 meter (m) = 0.4 inch 1 millimeter (mm) = 10 3 m 1 micrometer (m) = 10 3 mm = 10 6 m 1 nanometer (nm) = 10 3 m = 10 9 m Cells must obtain energy and nutrients Cells contain DNA Cells contain cytoplasm Cells contain ribosomes Cells are bound by plasma membrane Plasma Membrane Structure (on next slide) Function Structure Cell-cell recognition Cell-cell communication Receptor proteins on the outer surface of one cell interact with other cells Cell-cell adhesion Regulates movement of substances in and out (most important) Regulates what gets into the cell and what gets out Plasma membrane Outer boundary of cell Structure (same for ALL membranes) 1. Phospholipid bilayer 2. Embedded and attached proteins Different membranes have different proteins associated with them 3. Embedded cholesterol Functions to help maintain the fluidity of the membrane 4. Attached carbohydrates on outer surface just plasma membranes, NOT intracellular membranes, only on the outer surface of the cell 5. Fluid mosaic Phos. Bilayer is not static, can move around mixture of lots of diff proteins and other molecules Movement across plasma membrane...
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2008 for the course BIO 309D taught by Professor Jessicawandelt during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BIO 309D S08 Lec3 - Cell Structure and Function Read chap....

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