thermodynamics and free energy.pdf - Department of Chemistry Thermodynamics as an understanding of efficiency 0th law of thermodynamics Temperature as a

thermodynamics and free energy.pdf - Department of...

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Department of Chemistry 450 Thermodynamics as an understanding of efficiency 0th law of thermodynamics: Temperature as a measure of thermal equilibrium T 1 T 2 T 1 = T 2 A and B are in a thermal equilibrium; B and C are also in a thermal equilibrium A and C must be in a thermal equilibrium Therefore, a constant T indicates a thermal equilibrium (thermometer)
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Department of Chemistry 451 Heat and work are interconvertible (they are different forms of energy) Heat is not an elements or particles governed by the law of conservation of mass Energy must be conserved (the law of conservation of energy) The change of the internal energy of the system remains constant (isolated system) ࠵? U = q + w ; ࠵? U = change in system’s internal energy heat q = nC ࠵? T (heat increases the temperature of a system) work w = P ࠵? V = pdv; w = 0 at a constant volume, no additional (non-expansion) work ࠵? U = q + w = q PdV = q PdV VdP = q ࠵? (PV) (at const. p) rearranging q = ࠵? U + ࠵? (PV) = ࠵? (U + PV) enthalpy H = U + PV at constant p, ࠵?
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