Early:1. Lots of unrest/invasions so the monasteries had to be pretty much self-sufficient. Also, every region had their own style of writing which also contributed to the isolation. 2. Arabs preserved Classical works3. The layout of the codex was hard to read, no separations between words or any other type of text navigation. (Technically versals were used somewhat during this time period and that helped some.) Illumination was used to varying degrees throughout the entire middle ages. 4. Primarily used Uncial and Half-Uncial letters depending on the region. 5. Literacy mostly remained within the church, even kings were often illiterate.High: 1. Charlemagne united western Europe and established the Carolingian minuscule as the standard script for his empire. 2. Began the pursuit of knowledge but literacy and overall education werestill lacking (especially for the common people). Late:1. Arab translations of Classical texts were rediscovered and began to be studied. Universities were founded and there were now scholars outside of the church.2. Conventions for text navigation became important so that the scholars could quickly find the passage they were looking for during debate (and for study). 3. New universities created a need for books so professional scribes began copying texts (in addition to the monks). However, these were often of lower quality with more errors. 4. The vernacular languages were gaining more credibility, secular works were often written in languages other than Latin. 5. Bastarda, Gothic script and block books are specifically associated with the late medieval timeframe. All the other scripts, like Chancery, were used to varying degrees throughout the middle ages and it's not important that you put them into one of these categories. Broadside renaissance poster- Printed on one side - Temporary entertainment of newsEx) Sebastian BrantRecombination instead of recutting (modularization)- Modularization: Breakdown of complex processes into smaller units Ex) The Nuremberg chronicle, print version 1493Renaissance art advances:- Perspective- Oil PaintEx) School of Athens, RapaelReproducing Images *Renaissance technique were used until technology was developed to easily reproduce photographsWood Cut- GougesCarve out negative spaceInk raised lineEngraving - Barin- Carve onto a copper plate- Ink cut in linesAlbreeht Durer- Wood Cut Ex) Samson and the Lion, The Four Horse men- Engraving Ex) Praying hand- Engraved copy of Raphael’s paintingIntaglio- Line cut onto a metal plate- Engraving (directly)Etching (Using acid) – RembrandtUse rag paper- Made from lineGaramondFirst to design a font not copied from a handwritten scriptQ1. Which image reproduction process involves the least amount of manual labor?