epil_0021.docx - associated with focal cortical lesions...

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associated with focal cortical lesions, including temporal lobe epilepsy, was pioneered by Horsley, Penfield and Falconer, among others (23). The modern era is also marked by an expansion of interest in basic mechanisms underlying seizures and epilepsies, stimulated by developments in genetics, molecular biology, neurophysiology, functional imaging and numerous neurochemical techniques for exploring the concepts of excitation, inhibition, modulation, neurotransmission and synchronization. Every advance seems to add to the enor- 18 mous complexity of the nervous system and the probability that multiple elusive genetic–molecular– metabolic mechanisms contribute to the wide range of epilepsies. Public health and social developments Despite scientific advances in the 19th century, epilepsy remained a profound social problem compounded by deeply rooted historical concepts of a supernatural or sacred disorder. Widespread ignorance, fear, misunderstanding and stigma contributed to severe legal and social penalties. In Budapest in 1909 a group of European physicians founded the
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  • Fall '15
  • temporal lobe epilepsy, ILAE, 20th century ILAE

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