Hist 103 textbook.pdf - A Short History of the Middle Ages UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 1 1:45 PM UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 2 1:45 PM A Short History

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Unformatted text preview: A Short History of the Middle Ages UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 1 2013-12-17 1:45 PM UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 2 2013-12-17 1:45 PM A Short History of the Middle Ages Barbara H. Rosenwein Fourth Edition UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 3 2013-12-17 1:45 PM Copyright © University of Toronto Press Incorporated 2014 All rights reserved. The use of any part of this publication reproduced, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, or stored in a retrieval system, without prior written consent of the publisher—or in the case of photocopying, a licence from Access Copyright (Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency), One Yonge Street, Suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario M5E 1E5—is an infringement of the copyright law. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Rosenwein, Barbara H., author A short history of the Middle Ages / Barbara H. Rosenwein. — Fourth edition. Available in a 2 volume set. Includes bibliographical references and index. Issued in print and electronic formats. ISBN 978-1-4426-0802-3 (bound).—ISBN 978-1-4426-0611-1 (pbk.).— ISBN 978-1-4426-0612-8 (pdf).—ISBN 978-1-4426-0613-5 (html) 1. Middle Ages. 2. Europe—History—476-1492. I. Title. 940.1 C2013-906712-4 D117.R67 2014 C2013-906713-2 We welcome comments and suggestions regarding any aspect of our publications––please feel free to contact us at [email protected] or visit our Internet site at . UK, Ireland, and continental Europe North America 5201 Dufferin Street NBN International Estover Road, Plymouth, PL6 7PY, UK North York, Ontario, Canada, M3H 5T8 orders phone: 44 (0) 1752 202301 2250 Military Road orders fax: 44 (0) 1752 202333 Tonawanda, New York, USA, 14150 orders e-mail: [email protected] orders phone: 1–800–565–9523 1–800–221–9985 orders e-mail : [email protected] orders fax: Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders; in the event of an error or omission, please notify the publisher. The University of Toronto Press acknowledges the financial support for its publishing activities of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund. Printed in Canada UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 4 2013-12-17 1:45 PM For Sophie UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 5 2013-12-17 1:45 PM SERBIA MONTENEGRO KOS OVO UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 6 2013-12-17 1:45 PM The union of the Roman empire was dissolved; its genius was humbled in the dust; and armies of unknown barbarians, issuing from the frozen regions of the North, had established their victorious reign over the fairest provinces of Europe and Africa. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire It may very well happen that what seems for one group a period of decline may seem to another the birth of a new advance. Edward Hallett Carr, What is History? UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 7 2013-12-17 1:45 PM UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 8 2013-12-17 1:45 PM Contents List of Maps  •  x List of Plates  •  xi List of Genealogies  •  xiii List of Figures  •  xiii Abbreviations, Date Conventions, Websites  •  xiv Why the Middle Ages Matter Today  •  xv Acknowledgments  •  xvi Chapter one: Prelude: The Roman World Transformed (c.300–c.600)  •  1 Part I: Three Cultures from One Chapter two: The Emergence of Sibling Cultures (c.600–c.750)  •  39 Chapter three: Creating New Identities (c.750–c.900)  •  79 Chapter four: Political Communities Reordered (c.900–c.1050)  •  115 Part II: The European Take-Off Chapter five: The Expansion of Europe (c.1050–c.1150)  •  Chapter six: Institutionalizing Aspirations (c.1150–c.1250)  Chapter seven: Discordant Harmonies (c.1250–c.1350)  •  Chapter eight: Catastrophe and Creativity (c.1350–c.1500)  155 •  197 241 •  283 Epilogue  •  329 Glossary  •  330 Appendix: Lists  •  335 Late Roman Emperors  •  335 Byzantine Emperors •  337 Popes and Antipopes to 1500  •  338 Caliphs  •  342 Ottoman Emirs and Sultans  •  343 Sources  •  344 Index  •  351 UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 9 2013-12-17 1:45 PM Maps The Medieval World Today  •  vi–vii 1.1: The Roman Empire in the Third Century  •  2–3 1.2: Christian Churches Founded before the Great Persecution of Diocletian (303-304)  •  7 1.3: The Former Western Empire, c.500  •  24 1.4: Tours, c.600  •  26 1.5: Europe and the Eastern Roman Empire, c.600  •  30–31 2.1: The Byzantine Empire, c.700  •  40 2.2: The Islamic World to 750  •  51 2.3: Western Europe, c.750  •  59 3.1: The Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires, c.920  •  81 3.2: The Islamic World, c.800  •  88 3.3: Europe, c.814  •  94 3.4a: Partition of 843 (Treaty of Verdun)  •  101 3.4b: Partition of 870 (Treaty of Meerssen)  •  101 3.4c: Partition of 880  •  101 4.1: Constantinople, c.1100  •  116 4.2: The Byzantine Empire, c.1025  •  120 4.3: Kievan Rus’, c.1050  •  122 4.4: Fragmentation of the Islamic World, c.1000  •  124 4.5: Viking, Muslim, and Hungarian Invasions, Ninth and Tenth Centuries  •  128 4.6: Europe, c.1050  •  136 5.1: The Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk World, c.1090  •  157 5.2: Tours in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries  •  161 5.3: Western Europe, c.1100  •  168 5.4: The Crusader States, c.1140  •  173 5.5: Spain at the Death of Alfonso VI (1109)  •  176 6.1: The Almohads before the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212)  •  198 6.2: Saladin’s Empire, c.1200  •  199 6.3: The Latin Empire and Byzantine Successor States, 1204–c.1250  •  200 6.4: The Angevin and Capetian Realms in the Late Twelfth Century  •  206 6.5: Italy in the Age of Frederick Barbarossa  •  211 6.6: German Settlement in the Baltic Sea Region, Twelfth to Fourteenth Centuries  •  235 7.1: The Mongol Empire, c.1260–1350  •  242 7.2: Mongol-European Trade Routes, c.1350  •  244 7.3: European Trade Routes, c.1300  •  246 7.4: Piacenza, Late Thirteenth Century  •  249 7.5: Western Europe, c.1300  •  253 7.6: East Central Europe, c.1300  •  256 x UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 10 Maps 2013-12-17 1:45 PM 7.7: The Village of Toury, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries  •  276 7.8: The Lands of Toury, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries  •  277 8.1: The Ottoman Empire, c.1500  •  288 8.2: The First Phase of the Hundred Years’ War, 1337–1360  •  290 8.3: English and Burgundian Hegemony in France, c.1430  •  293 8.4: The Duchy of Burgundy, 1363–1477  •  294 8.5: Western Europe, c.1450  •  298 8.6: Long-distance Sea Voyages of the Fifteenth Century  •  323 Plates 1.1: Mars and Venus, Pompeii (1st cent.)  •  12 1.2: Landscape, Pompeii (1st cent.)  •  13 1.3: A City Scene, Boscoreale (1st cent. bce )  •  14 1.4: Meleager on a Roman Sarcophagus (2nd cent.)  •  15 1.5: Venus and Two Nymphs, Britain (2nd or early 3rd cent.)  •  16 1.6: Tombstone, near Carthage (2nd cent.?)  •  17 1.7: Decorated Coffer from Jerusalem (1st cent.?)  •  18 1.8: Base of the Hippodrome Obelisk (c.390)  •  18 1.9: Orant Fresco (2nd half of 4th cent.)  •  19 1.10: Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (359)  •  20 1.11: Reliquary of Theuderic (late 7th cent.)  •  29 1.12: Mosaic from San Vitale, Ravenna (c.545–c.550)  •  32–33 Seeing the Middle Ages 2.1: An Ivory Diptych of Christ and the Virgin (mid-6th cent.)  •  46 Panel from the consular diptych of Magnus  •  47 2.2: Cross at Hagia Sophia (orig. mosaic 6th cent.; redone 768/769)  •  49 2.3: Damascus Great Mosque Mosaic (706)  •  57 2.4: Belt Buckle from Sutton Hoo (early 7th cent.)  •  65 2.5: Saint Luke, Lindisfarne Gospels (1st third of 8th cent.?)  •  67 2.6: Carpet Page, Lindisfarne Gospels (1st third of 8th cent.?)  •  68 2.7: First Text Page, Gospel of Saint Luke, Lindisfarne Gospels (1st third of 8th cent.?)  •  69 2.8: Franks Casket (1st half of 8th cent.)  •  70–71 3.1: The Empress Eudocia and Her Sons, Homilies of Gregory Nazianzus (c.880)  •  85 3.2: Ezekiel in the Valley of Dry Bones, Homilies of Gregory Nazianzus (c.880)  •  86 3.3: Water Pitcher in the Shape of an Eagle (796–797)  •  90 3.4: Great Mosque, Córdoba (785–787)  •  95 3.5: Sacramentary of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (early 9th cent.)  •  104 3.6: The Pleiades (2nd quarter, 9th cent.)  •  107 Plates UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 11 xi 2013-12-17 1:45 PM 3.7: Psalter Page (2nd quarter, 9th cent.)  •  108 3.8: Saint John (2nd half, 9th cent.)  •  110 3.9: Utrecht Psalter (c.820–835)  •  111 4.1: Emperor Basil II (r.976–1025)  •  118 4.2: The Raising of Lazarus, Egbert Codex (985–990)  •  142 4.3: Christ Asleep, Hitda Gospels (c.1000–c.1020)  •  143 Seeing the Middle Ages 4.4: Saint Luke, Gospel Book of Otto III (998–1001)  •  146 Otto III Enthroned, Aachen Gospels (c.996)  •  147 5.1: San Miniato Cathedral (late 12th cent.)  •  162 5.2: Bowl, North Africa (late 12th cent.)  •  163 5.3: Durham Cathedral, Interior (1093–1133)  •  182 5.4: Sant Tomàs de Fluvià, The Last Supper, Painted Vault (early 12th cent.)  •  183 5.5: Cathedral Complex, Pisa (11th–12th cent.)  •  184 5.6: Saint-Lazare of Autun, Nave (1120–1146)  •  185 5.7: Autun, Eve (12th cent.)  •  186 5.8: Carthusian Diurnal from Lyon (12th cent.)  •  188 5.9: Fontenay Abbey Church, Interior (1139–1147)  •  190 5.10: Jael, Humility, and Judith (c.1140)  •  193 6.1: Bust of Frederick Barbarossa (1165)  •  210 6.2: Notre Dame of Paris, Exterior (begun 1163)  •  222–23 6.3: Notre Dame of Paris, Interior (begun 1163)  •  224 6.4: Lincoln Cathedral, Interior (choir begun 1192, nave begun 1225)  •  225 6.5: San Francesco at Assisi (upper church; completed by 1253)  •  226 6.6: Reims Cathedral, West Portal, Saint Joseph (c.1240)  •  227 7.1: Chalice (c.1300)  •  260 7.2: Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin (1342)  •  261 Seeing the Middle Ages 7.3: A Shrine Madonna (c.1300)  •  262 Guido da Vigevano, “The Seven Cells of the Uterus” (1345)  •  263 7.4: Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux (c.1325–1328)  •  264 7.5: Tomb and Effigy of Robert d’Artois (1317)  •  265 7.6: The Motet S’Amours (c.1300)  •  269 7.7: Saint John, “Dominican” Bible (mid-13th cent.)  •  271 7.8: Saint John, “Aurifaber” Bible (mid-13th cent.)  •  272 7.9: Nicola Pisano, Pulpit (1266–1268)  •  273 7.10: Giotto, Scrovegni Chapel, Padua (1304–1306)  •  274 7.11: Giotto, Raising of Lazarus, Scrovegni Chapel (1304–1306)  •  275 8.1: Corpses Confront the Living (c.1441)  •  285 8.2: Donatello, Judith and Holofernes (c.1420–1430)  •  306 8.3: Piero di Cosimo, Venus, Cupid, and Mars (c.1495–1505)  •  308–9 8.4: Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence Cathedral Dome (1418–1436)  •  310 xii UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 12 Plates 2013-12-17 1:45 PM 8.5: Raphael, Entombment of Christ (1507)  •  311 8.6: Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper (1494–1497)  •  312–13 8.7: Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Mehmed II (1479)  •  315 8.8: History of Alexander the Great, Tapestry (c.1459)  •  316–17 8.9: Rogier van der Weyden, Columba Altarpiece (1450s)  •  318–19 8.10: Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban (1433)  •  321 Genealogies 2.1: Muhammad’s Relatives and Successors to 750  •  54–55 2.2: The Merovingians  •  62 3.1: The Carolingians  •  100 4.1: Alfred and His Progeny  •  138 4.2: The Ottonians  •  140 5.1: The Early Seljuks  •  156 5.2: The Comnenian Dynasty  •  159 5.3: The Salian Kings and Emperors  •  166 5.4: The Capetian Kings of France  •  177 6.1: The Norman and Angevin Kings of England  •  202 6.2: Rulers of Germany and Sicily  •  209 8.1: Kings of France and England and the Dukes of Burgundy during the Hundred Years’ War  •  291 8.2: York and Lancastrian (Tudor) Kings  •  296 Figures 2.1: Late Antique Ephesus  •  43 2.2: Yeavering, Northumberland  •  60 5.1: Saint-Germain of Auxerre (12th cent.)  •  180 5.2: A Model Romanesque Church: Saint-Lazare of Autun  •  187 5.3: Plan of Fountains Abbey (founded 1132)  •  191 6.1: Elements of a Gothic Church  •  221 7.1: Single Notes and Values of Franconian Notation  •  268 Figures UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 13 xiii 2013-12-17 1:45 PM Abbreviations, Date Conventions, Websites Abbreviations c. circa. Used in dates to mean that they are approximate. c ent. century d. date of death emp. emperor fl. flourished. This is given when even approximate birth and death dates are unknown. r. dates of reign Date Conventions All dates are ce /ad unless otherwise noted (the two systems are interchangeable). The dates of popes are not preceded by r. because popes took their papal names upon accession to office, and the dates after those names apply only to their papacies. The symbol / between dates indicates uncertainty: e.g. Boethius (475/480–524) means that he was born at some time between 475 and 480. Websites = The website for this book, which has practice short-answer and discussion questions (with sample answers provided), as well as maps, genealogies, and links to other medieval web resources. = The Labyrinth: Resources for Medieval Studies sponsored by Georgetown University. = De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families (to 1453). xiv UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 14 Abbreviations, Date Conventions, Websites 2013-12-17 1:45 PM Why The Middle Ages Matter Today “The past is never dead. It’s not even past,” wrote William Faulkner in Requiem for a Nun. Faulkner was speaking of the past experiences of one human being. Can his statement apply to the historical past? Above all, can it apply to a period so far behind us that it has another name: the Middle Ages? Do the Middle Ages still shape our world? To be sure! We can say that universities as we know them “began” in the Middle Ages; that medieval representative institutions were forerunners of the US houses of Congress and the Canadian Parliament; and that (giving the question of origins a less positive spin) the idea of making Jews wear a special marker, so important a feature of Nazi Germany in the 1930s, goes back to 1215. Today Neapolitans can walk by the very priory of San Domenico where Thomas Aquinas entered the order of Preachers, the Dominicans, while Americans in Washington, DC, can ogle Washington National Cathedral, built in Gothic style. So medieval history is relevant today. It helps explain our surroundings and the origins of many of our institutions. But immediate relevance is not the only reason why the Middle Ages matter. To put it bluntly: they matter because they are past, yet still familiar. The religions that flourished then—Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and the many dissidents within these folds—remain with us, even though they have changed dramatically. This is true as well of many of our institutions—the papacy, royalty, and towns, for example. The problems confronting people in the Middle Ages, not just basic problems such as giving birth, surviving, getting ill, and dying, but sophisticated problems—attempts at thought control, manipulation of markets, outlets and barriers to creativity—are recognizably analogous to our own. Yet much is very different today. This isn’t true just at the level of tools—the Middle Ages had nothing that was powered by electricity, no instantaneous communication methods—but also at the level of assumptions about the world. For example, the Middle Ages lacked our ideas and feelings associated with “nationalism.” The nation-state, of overriding importance in our time, was unknown in the Middle Ages, even though medieval history became a discipline precisely to prove the reality of nations. (That last fact explains the origins of some of the great medieval primary-source collections undertaken in the nineteenth century, such as the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, the Historical Monuments of Germany, whose motto, Sanctus amor patriae dat animum, linked “holy love for the Fatherland” with soul, spirit, and inspiration.) In the end, then, the Middle Ages matter today because they are not so far away as to be entirely foreign, and yet they are far enough away. As the Middle Ages unfolded and became something else (however we may want to define the period that comes next), we can see slow change over time, which we cannot do with our own period. We can then assess what both its stability and its changes may mean for our understanding of human nature, human society, ourselves, and our future. Why The Middle Ages Matter Today UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 15 xv 2013-12-17 1:45 PM Acknowledgments I would like to thank all the readers, many anonymous, who made suggestions for improving earlier editions of A Short History of the Middle Ages. While I hope I will be forgiven for not naming everyone—a full list of names would begin to sound like a roll call of medievalists, both American and European—I want to single out those who were of special help: Eduardo Aubert, Monique Bourin, Elizabeth A.R. Brown, Leslie Brubaker, D.B. van Espelo, Dominique Iogna-Prat, Herbert Kessler, Maureen C. Miller, Eduard Mühle, David Petts, Faith Wallis, Anders Winroth, and Ian Wood. Piotr Górecki supplied me with detailed notes and bibliography and generously critiqued my attempts to write about the history of East Central Europe. Elina Gertsman was a never-ending font of knowledge and inspiration for all matters artistic. Kiril Petkov was a constant and generous resource for matters Bulgarian. Although Riccardo Cristiani was hired simply to check facts, his work for me became a true collaboration. He wrote the questions and answers for the website of this book, compiled the index, and not only corrected many obscurities, infelicities, and errors but also suggested welcome changes and additions. (The mistakes that remain are, to be sure, mine alone.) The people with whom I worked at the University of Toronto Press were unfailingly helpful and efficacious: Judith Earnshaw and Natalie Fingerhut, with whom I was in constant touch, as well as Martin Boyne, Liz Broes, Anna Del Col, Michael Harrison, Matthew Jubb, Beate Schwirtlich, Zack Taylor, and Daiva Villa. I am grateful to the librarians of Loyola University Chicago’s Cudahy library—especially Frederick Barnhart, Jennifer Jacobs, Linda Lotton, the late Bonnie McNamara, Jeannette Pierce, David Schmidt, Ursula Scholz, and Jennifer Stegen—who cheerfully fed my voracious hunger for books. Finally, I thank my family, and I dedicate this book to its youngest member, my granddaughter Sophie, born in 2011. May she find much in the Middle Ages to wonder at and enjoy. xvi UTP SHMA 4e-Interior-F.indd 16 Acknowledgments 2013-12-17 1:45 PM One Prelude: The Roman World Transformed (c.300–c.600) In the third century , the Roman Empire wrapped around the Mediterranean Sea like a scarf. (See Map 1.1.) Thinner on the North African coast, it bulked large as it enveloped what is today Spain, England, Wales, France, and Belgium, and then evened out along the southern coast of the Danube River, following that river eastward, taking in most of what is today called the Balkans (southwestern Europe, including Greece), crossing the Hellespont and engulfing in its sweep the territory of present-day Turkey, much of Syria, and all of modern Lebanon, Israel, and Egypt. All the regions but Italy comprised what the Romans called the “provinces.” This was the Roman Empire whose “decline and fall” was famously proclaimed by the eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon. But in fact his verdict was misplaced. The Empire was never livelier than at its reputed end. It is true that the old elites of the cities, especially of Rome itself, largely regretted the changes taking place around them c.250–350. They were witnessing the end of their political, military, religious, economic, and cultural leadership, which was passing to the provinces. But for the provincials (the Romans living outside of Italy) this was in many ways a heady period, a long-postponed coming of age. They did not regret that Emperor Diocletian (r.284–305) divided the Roman Empire into four parts, each ruled by a different man. Called the Tetrarchy, the partition was tacit recognition of the importance of the provinces. Some did, however, regret losing their place in the sun, as happened c.400–500, to people still farther afield, whom they called “barbarians.” In turn, the barbarians were glad to be the heirs of the Roman Empire e...
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