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Vivian BonillaChapter #15In 1865 President Andrew Johnson implemented a plan of Reconstruction that gave the white South a free hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and offered no role to blacks in the politicsof the South. The conduct of the governments he established turned many Northerners against the president’s policies. The end of the Civil War found the nation without a settled Reconstruction policy. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson offered a pardon to all Southerners expect Confederate leaders and wealthy planters and authorized them to create new governments. Black were denied any role in theprocess. Johnson also ordered nearly all the land in the hands of the government returned to its prewar owners which created the black hope for economic autonomy. Radical Republicans won over two-thirds of the seats in the House of Representatives and the Senate. They now had the power to override Johnson’s vetoes and pass the Civil Rights Act and the bill extend the Freedmen’s Bureau, and they did soimmediately. Congress had now taken charge of the South’s reconstruction. Radical Republicans, were committed to protecting and expanding the rights of African Americans, including those who had recently gained their freedom. In 1866 congress passes two bills designed to assist African Americans and promote their welfare.