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Study Guide - Exam 1

Study Guide - Exam 1 - Oceanography 1st Exam 1 What is...

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Oceanography: 1 st Exam 1. What is science? - Science: systematic process of asking questions about the observable world by gathering and then studying data - Marine Science (oceanography): the process of discovering unifying principles in data obtained from the ocean 2. Hypothesis, model - Hypothesis/model: an explanation of what you observed; a speculation about the natural world that can be tested and verified or disproved by further observations and controlled experiments - Experiment: a test that simplifies observation in nature or in the lab by manipulating or controlling the conditions under which observations are made - Theory: statement that explains the observations - Laws: summarize experimental observations – principles explaining events in nature that have been observed to occur with unvarying uniformity under the same conditions - a law summarizes observations; a theory provides an explanation for the observations 3. How many Californians live within 50 miles of the ocean? Why is the ocean important to the lives of Californians? - 14 million - Why? o Climate: influenced by the ocean o Recreation: boating, beaches o Economic factor: harbors (i.e. Long Beach Harbor) = container ships, loading terminals = global economy o Environmental impact: sewage development, convenient place for waste, urban life/sprawl along the coast 4. Miscalculation of the size of the earth & its influence on Euro 5. What is oceanography? How does it differ from other natural sciences? Oceanography: Systematic scientific study of the ocean 6. What is the scientific method? Give an example from the course. Scientific Method: accumulation of knowledge through observation and logic o Nothing is ever proven absolutely true by the scientific method b/c theories may change etc. o All scientific understanding is tentative The scientific method is ongoing and never is complete because new information always arises
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An example would be that scientists thought they knew about the plates on the ocean floor, etc. and then were later proven wrong when incidents such as earthquakes occurred, thus leading to more observation and experimentation. 7. How do you determine latitude? Longitude? - Latitude: lines drawn parallel to the equator (“fatitude” runs N/S) o Measured as the angle between a line form Earth’s center to the equator and a line for Earth’s center to the measurement point - Longitude: lines ran from pole to pole (“long hair” runs E/W) o 2 methods: astronomy and time o Astronomy: Measured the angle between the earth and moon (lunar distances – laborious and impresise) o Time: 1728 John Harrison created clocks powered by springs (chronometer) b/c pendulum and rolling sea gave inaccurate measurements - Systems of imaginary lines dividing the surface of Earth - Invented by Eratosthenes - Measured as angles between lines drawn from the center of Earth to the surface - Lines of latitude are always the same distance apart distance between two lines of longitude varies with latitude - Earth’s shape and circumference were accurately estimated around 230 b.c. at the
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