Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Ocean Final Study Guide 1 What is a...

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Ocean Final Study Guide 1. What is a population? How does it differ from a community? Population: group of same species occupying the same area Community: population of all species that occupy same habitat and interact with one another 2. What is a trophic pyramid? How does it differ from a food web/chain? Trophic pyramid: feeding hierarchy of organisms o producers (bottom = primary producers) heterotrophs/herbivores (middle = primary consumer) carnivore (top = top consumer) Food web: group of organisms linked by complex feeding relationships in which the flow of energy can be followed from primary producers through consumers 3. What conditions are necessary for rapid growth of phytoplankton? Phytoplankton : minute, drifting photosynthetic organisms produce 90%-96% of oceanic carbs Polar regions need more light Mid-latitudes need more light and nutrients Tropics need more nutrients Nutrients most abundant nearest continents from land runoff and upwelling 4. Where does the maximum level of primary productivity occur in the photic zone? Photic zone: uppermost layer of seawater lit by the sun Abundant small organisms and light scattering particles – extends about 100 m Max. level not directly at surface – about 4 m = most primary productivity Occurs in the euphotic zone (in photic zone) 2% of oceans volume but nearly all marine life depends on it Upper productive layer of ocean 5. What is a nutrient? Give an example. Nutrient: compound required for the production of organic matter Primary nutrients for productivity: Nitrogen and Phosphorus Often depleted by autotrophs during times of high productivity and rapid reproduction 6. What are the factors that control the penetration of light into the ocean? Depends on depth, angle of sunlight approach (location helps determine this), and how much and what type of particles 7. What is the difference between phytoplankton and zooplankton? Phytoplankton smaller simple organisms, producers Zooplankton larger more complex organisms, consumers (heterotrophs) o Planktonic organisms that eat the primary producers
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o Most numerous primary consumer of the ocean = eat diatom, dinoflagellates, and other phytoplankton 8. What is the difference between a polyp and a medusa? Polyp: sea anemones and corals sedentary animals Medusa: jellyfish predatory animals that swim by the rhythmic contraction of their bell-shaped bodies, catch pray with tentacles Polyp are attached to sea floor and eat what is around them while medusas look for their prey Related because jellyfish is a phase in the lifestyle that creates the polyp They are both examples of cnidarians 9. What is the source of the phosphate that enters the oceans? Comes from the weathering and erosion of continental rocks
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2008 for the course GEOL 107Lxg taught by Professor Douglas during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Final Study Guide - Ocean Final Study Guide 1 What is a...

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