Italy Location Southern Europe Climate Mediterranean, Cooler in north, hot in south Weather Variable weather giving annual vintage variations in northern regions Soils Variable, much of the country is hilly or mountainous, and most of the best vineyards. Grape Varieties Black: Local -Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Barbera, Dolcetto White: Local - Trebianno, Malvasia, Verdicchio, Garganega, Cortese International- Cab Sauvignon, Cab Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir International- Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio (Pinot gris) Grapegrowing High trained vines in the north Low- trained high- density planting in south Winemaking Traditional fermentation and use of old wood Modern fermentation with temperature control and use of new oak Types of producers: Azienda Agricola-estate-grown, vinified and bottled Azienda vitivinicola-producer who grows and buys in grapes to make wine Cantina sociale- co-operative Key Wines / Subregion Piedmont: Barolo, Barbaresco, Barbera Dasti, Dolcetto Dalba, Gavi Trentino-Alto Adige: Trentino, Alto Adige Friuili-Venezia Giulia: Collio, Friuili Grave Veneto: Valpolicella (Amarone, Recioto), Soave, Bardolino, Veneto IGT Tuscany: Bolgheri, Brunello di Montalcino, Chianti, Chianti districts (Classico, Rufina), Vernaccia di San Gimignano, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Toscana IGT Marche: Conero, Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi Umbria: Orvieto Abruzzo: Montepulciano D’Abruzzo, Trebbiano D’Abruzzo Campania: Taurasi, Greco di Tufo Apulia: Salice Salentino, Copertino Basilicata: Aglianco del Vulture Sicily Label Terminology Vino da Tavola=Table wine DOC= quality wine region Classico= original centre of region IGT: Italian equivalent to Vin de Pays DOCG: highest level of quality Riserva= additional ageing in cask Consorzio= producers assortio Abboccato=medium- sweet &full bodied Amabile=medium sweet Italian Laws DOC • Created in 1963 — Controlled denomination of origin — Based on the French AOC laws — Created to provide much-needed structure and standards of production • Regional laws established to define: — Yields — Grape varieties — Geographical boundaries — Viticultural practices and vinification techniques — Max/min alcohol levels — Aging requirements • Over 380 DOCs and counting … Goria Laws • Named after Agricultural Minister Giovanni Goria • Enacted in 1992 to address shortcomings of the DOC system (Vino da Tavola Revolt) • Introduction of the IGT — Indicazione Geografica Tipica — Producers can petition for DOC status using the IGT designation as a springboard • “Normale” vs. “Riserva” terminology tightened and some marginal vineyard zones eliminated • Did not address yield issue • Changes still in progress
DOCG • Denominazione di Origine Controllata Garantita • Created in 1984 • Garantita: adds a guarantee- to DOC wines. Must be approved by a government tasting panel on an annual basis • Initially six DOCGs • Now 73 and counting … Challenges of the DOC System • Few easily identifiable wine regions — i.e. France with recognizable names
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- Three '18
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- Italian wine, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sangiovese, Grape varieties, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano