Civil Service Reform.docx - Running head CIVIL SERVICE REFORM Civil Service Reform Students Name Institutional Affiliation 1 CIVIL SERVICE REFORM 2

Civil Service Reform.docx - Running head CIVIL SERVICE...

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Running head: CIVIL SERVICE REFORM 1Civil Service ReformStudent’s Name:Institutional Affiliation:
CIVIL SERVICE REFORM 2Civil Service ReformHow Civil Service Looked Like Before 1978The first civil service reform was created as a replacement of the English colonial administration system by the American system. The first six presidents of the US formulated policies regarding the appointment to federal offices on the by "fitness of character," a policy created by President George Washington (Perry, 2012). "Fitness of character" refers to an individual with good character and can be involved in conformity with chief executives' objectives and political view. John Adams and George Washington were federalists who believedthat America was in need of a strong central government. On the other hand, Thomas Jefferson who was the leading the Democratic-Republican party, allowed the states to possess authoritativepower and not the government. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the patronage system emerged. This system represented the special interests of the government instead of public interests. The system destroyed party machines that ran major cities of the United States. The machines ignored and corrupted the interests of elected minorities as well as taxing them heavily. This reform was strongly supported due to the self-interests of the political and economic class behind the patronage system. Regarding this system, the job performance criteria focused on actions, promotions, and appointments. During the World War I and the Great Depression, the government increased in size, became more complex and expensive. In the 1960s, efforts were

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