Exam 2 Study Guide


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CHAPTER 5 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Vocabulary central vacuole a large, fluid-filled vacuole occupying most of the volume of many plant cells; performs several functions, including maintaining turgor pressure. chlorophyll a pigment found in chloroplasts that captures light energy during photosynthesis; absorbs violet, blue, and red light but reflects green light. chloroplast the organelle in plants and plantlike protists that is the site of photosynthesis; surrounded by a double membrane and containing an extensive internal membrane system that bears chlorophyll. chromatin the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes. chromosome a single DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize the DNA. Cytoplasm the material contained within the plasma membrane of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus. Cytoskeleton a network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm that gives shape to a cell, holds and moves organelles, and is typically involved in cell movement. DNA a molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides; contains the genetic information of all living cells. endoplasmic reticulum a system of membranous tubes and channels within eukaryotic cells; the site of most protein and lipid syntheses; numerous ribosomes stud outside of rough ERs but smooth ER lacks ribosomes. endosymbiont hypothesis the hypothesis that certain organelles, especially chloroplasts and mitochondria, arose as mutually beneficial associations between the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and captured bacteria that lived within the cytoplasm of the pre-eukaryotic cell. eukaryotic referring to cells of organisms of the domain Eukarya (plants, animals, fungi, and protists). Eukaryotic cells have genetic material enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus and contain other membrane-bound organelles. Golgi complex a stack of membranous sacs, found in most eukaryotic cells, that is the site of processing and separation of membrane components and secretory materials. light microscope uses lenses, usually made of glass, to focus and magnify light rays that either pass through or bounce off a specimen; provide a wide range of images, depending on how the specimen is illuminated and whether it has been stained; the resolving power (the smallest structure that can be seen) is about 1 micrometer lysosome a membrane-bound organelle containing intracellular digestive enzymes. Mitochondrion an organelle, bounded by two membranes, that is the site of the reactions of aerobic metabolism. nuclear envelope the double-membrane system surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; the outer membrane is typically continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleus the membrane-bound organelle of eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material. Organelle
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2008 for the course BIOL 1005 taught by Professor Mvlipscomb during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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