Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Chapter 14 Principles of Evolution...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 14 Principles of Evolution Vocabulary analogous structures artificial selection catastrophism convergent evolution the independent evolution of similar structures among unrelated organisms as a result of similar environmental pressures; see analogous structures. evolution fossil homologous structures inheritance of acquired characteristics natural selection population uniformitarianism the hypothesis that Earth developed gradually through natural processes, similar to those at work today, that occur over long periods of time. vestigial structures a structure that serves no apparent purpose but is homologous to functional structures in related organisms and provides evidence of evolution. Things to know: 1. Explain how the distribution and the structure of fossils support the concept that life has change over time. The organization of fossils and rock layers was consistent: fossil type A could always be found in a rock layer directly above an older layer containing fossil type B, which in turn rested atop a still older layer containing fossil type C, and so on. Most fossils found in the oldest and deepest layers were very different from modern organism; the resemblance to modern organisms gradually increased on progressively younger rocks. Many of the fossils were from plant or animal species that hadn gone extinct. 2. You should know the role of each of the following individuals in development of our current understanding of evolution: Georges Cuvier, Louis Agassiz, James Hutton, Charles Lyle, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Darwin, Alfred Wallace, Thomas Malthus George Cuvier: proposed theory of catastrophism. He hypothesized that a vast supply of species was created initially. Successive catastrophes (Great Flood) produced layers of rock and destroyed many species, fossilizing some of their remains. The organisms of modern world represent species that survived catastrophes. Louis Agassiz: proposed that new creations after each catastrophe produced new and different species, and that modern species therefore result from the most recent creations. James Hutton and Charles Lyle: proposed that Earth was old enough to allow for the development of new species. They contemplated that the forces of wind, water, earthquakes, and volcanism. They concluded that there was no need to invoke catastrophes to explain the findings of geology. This concept called uniformitarianism: slow, natural processes alone produced layers of rock thousands of feet thick, then Earth must be old indeed. Hutton: “No Vesitge of a Beginning, no Prospect of an End”. Laid foundation for earth’s old age for evolution to occur. Jean Baptiste Lamarck: One of first scientists to propose a mechanism for evolution. He observed older fossils tended to be simpler, whereas younger fossils tended to be more complex and more like existing organisms. Lamarck hypothesized that organisms evolve
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/25/2008 for the course BIOL 1005 taught by Professor Mvlipscomb during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

Page1 / 8

Final Study Guide - Chapter 14 Principles of Evolution...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online