Pregnancy Ch4 F2015 revised.ppt - Nutrition during Pregnancy Chapter 4 NTR 313 Time-related Terms Before During and After Pregnancy The Status of

Pregnancy Ch4 F2015 revised.ppt - Nutrition during...

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Nutrition during Pregnancy Chapter 4 NTR 313
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Time-related Terms Before, During, and After Pregnancy
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The Status of Pregnancy Outcomes Infant mortality: Reflects general health and socioeconomic status of a population Decreases in mortality related to improvements in social circumstances, safe & nutritious foods, & infectious disease control
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Natality Statistics: Rates, Definitions, and Trends in the Rates in the United States
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Chronology of Events Related to Declines in Infant Mortality in the United States
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Low Birthweight, Preterm Delivery, and Infant Mortality Low birth weight or preterm infants at high risk of dying in 1st year of life 8.2% of births are LBW yet comprise 66% of infant deaths <2500 g (5.5 lb) 12% are born preterm yet account for high incidence of infant deaths <37 weeks preterm
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Reducing Infant Mortality and Morbidity Improve birth weight of newborns Desirable birth weight = 3500-4500 g (7 lb. 12 oz.-10 lb.) Infants born with desirable wt have better health and mental status and are less likely to develop: Heart and Lung diseases Diabetes Hypertension
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Physiology of Pregnancy Key terms: Gestational age Assessed from date of conception Average pregnancy is 38 weeks Menstrual age Assessed from onset of last menstrual period Average pregnancy is 40 weeks
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Maternal Physiology Changes in maternal physiology & functions occur in specific sequence (Successful completion of each stage depends on the stage before it)
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Normal Physiological Changes during Pregnancy Two phases of changes 1. Maternal anabolic changes (during the 1 st half of pregnancy; ~10% growth of the fetus) 2. Maternal catabolic changes (during the 2nd half of pregnancy; ~90% growth of the fetus)
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Maternal Anabolic and Catabolic Phases of Pregnancy
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Body Water Changes Body water increases from ~7 L to 10 L Results from increased blood and body tissues & extracellular volume & amniotic fluid Edema Swelling due to accumulation of extracellular fluid
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Key Placental Hormones and Examples of their Roles
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Nutrient Metabolism Carbohydrate Glucose is fetus’s preferred fuel Maternal changes promote insulin resistance relies more on fat for energy Adequate glucose for fetal growth & dev. Decreased conversion of glucose to glycogen Lowered maternal use of glucose Increased liver production “Diabetogenic effect of pregnancy”
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Carbohydrate Metabolism Early pregnancy: High estrogen & progesterone stimulate insulin which increases glucose glycogen & fat Late pregnancy: Human chorionic somatotropin (hCS) & prolactin inhibit conversion of glucose to glycogen & fat
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Protein Metabolism 925 g (~2#) of protein accumulate during pregnancy Protein & amino acids conserved during pregnancy (more efficiently used) Needs must be met by mother’s intake of protein RDA for non-pregnant women = 46 g RDA for pregnant & lactating women (during 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters) = 71 g
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Fat Metabolism Fat stores
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  • Spring '14
  • BrendaB.Ross
  • Nutrition, weight gain, early pregnancy, Late pregnancy, Physiology of Pregnancy

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