Unformatted text preview: A NEW WORLD HISTORY 11
CHAPTER 1 Pre-Columbian Era
Approximately 30,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians, the ancestors of Native Americans,
followed herds of animals from Siberia across Beringia, a land bridge connecting Asia and
North America, into Alaska. By 8,000 B.C.E., these peoples had spread across North and
No one knows for sure how many Indians lived in the Western Hemisphere in 1492, but the
number was in the millions. In no sense were the Americas “virgin”/unoccupied lands.
These early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of
culturally distinct nations and tribes.
At least 2,000 distinct languages were spoken in the Americas in 1492. Cultural differences
were marked. Some Indian peoples belonged to small bands of hunters and gatherers;
some practiced sophisticated irrigated agriculture.
Complex, agriculturally-based cultures developed in a number of regions, including the
Mayas and Aztecs in Mesoamerica, the Incas in Peru, and the Mound-builders and
Mississippians in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. The bridge connecting Asia and North America, through Alaska AZTEC CIVILIZATION IN
THE AZTECS, WHO PROBABLY ORIGINATED AS A
NOMADIC TRIBE IN NORTHERN MEXICO, ARRIVED IN
MESOAMERICA AROUND THE BEGINNING OF THE
FROM THEIR MAGNIFICENT CAPITAL CITY,
TENOCHTITLAN, THE AZTECS EMERGED AS THE
DOMINANT FORCE IN CENTRAL MEXICO, DEVELOPING
AN INTRICATE SOCIAL, POLITICAL, RELIGIOUS AND
COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION THAT BROUGHT MANY
OF THE REGION’S CITY-STATES UNDER THEIR
CONTROL BY THE 15TH CENTURY.
INVADERS LED BY THE SPANISH CONQUISTADOR
HERNAN CORTES OVERTHREW THE AZTECS BY FORCE
AND CAPTURED TENOCHTITLAN IN 1521, BRINGING
AN END TO MESOAMERICA’S LAST GREAT NATIVE
CIVILIZATION. A HUGE MARKETPLACE SERVED NEARLY 60,000 PEOPLE DAILY, AND IN THE SACRED PRECINCT OF THE CITY
WERE PALACES AND TEMPLES THE LIKE OF WHICH HERNÁN CORTÉS HAD NEVER SEEN. CORTÉS WAS AWED;
BUT IT DIDN'T STOP HIM FROM DESTROYING ALMOST ALL OF THE CITY'S BUILDINGS DURING HIS CONQUEST . Early Aztec History
The Aztecs appeared in Mesoamerica–as the south-central region of pre-Columbian Mexico is
known–in the early 13th century. Their arrival came just after, or perhaps helped bring about,
the fall of the previously dominant Mesoamerican civilization, the Toltecs.
Tenochtitlán, is currently located in the heart of what is now Mexico City, it became to be one
of the largest city and capital of the Aztec empire. Today, Mexico City is still one of the largest
cities in the world, despite its unusual setting. It sits on a swampy island in the middle of Lake
Texcoco in the Basin of Mexico, a strange place for any capital, ancient or modern. Mexico
City is ringed by volcanic mountains, including the still-active volcano Popocatépetl, and
prone to earthquakes, severe flooding, and some of the worst smog on the planet.
Although the conquistador Hernán Cortés did his best to dismantle the city, three 16th
century maps of Tenochtitlan survive showing us what the city was like. The earliest map is
the Nuremberg or Cortes map of 1524, drawn for the conquistador Cortés, possibly by a local
resident. THE CORTES MAP 1524 CURRENT AERIAL VIEW OF MEXICO CITY Why did the Aztecs select Tenochtitlan?
When the Aztecs saw an eagle on a cactus on the marshy land near the southwest
border of Lake Texcoco, they took it as a sign to build their settlement there.
They drained the swampy land, constructed artificial islands on which they could
plant gardens and established the foundations of their capital city, Tenochtitlán, in
1325 A.D. (But keep in mind that the Toltecs had resided approximately 40
kilometers in the 4th century away from Tenochtitlan).
Typical Aztec crops included maize (corn), along with beans, squashes, potatoes,
tomatoes and avocados; they also supported themselves through fishing and
hunting local animals such as rabbits, armadillos, snakes, coyotes and wild turkey.
Their relatively sophisticated system of agriculture (including intensive cultivation of
land and irrigation methods) and a powerful military tradition would enable the
Aztecs to build a successful state, and later an empire. MAYAN EMPIRE
The Maya Empire, centered in the
tropical lowlands of what is now
Guatemala, the Yucatan Peninsula, El
Salvador, Belize, and part of
Honduras GG It also reached the peak of its power
and influence around the sixth
The Maya excelled at agriculture,
pottery, hieroglyph writing, calendarmaking and mathematics, and left
behind an astonishing amount of
impressive architecture and symbolic
Most of the great stone cities of the
Maya were abandoned by A.D. 900. Excavations of Maya sites have unearthed plazas, palaces, temples and
pyramids, as well as courts for playing the ball games that were ritually and
politically significant to Maya culture.
Maya cities were surrounded and supported by a large population of farmers.
The Maya practiced a primitive type of “slash-and-burn” agriculture, they also
displayed evidence of more advanced farming methods, such as irrigation
The Maya were deeply religious, and worshiped various gods related to
nature, including the gods of the sun, the moon, rain and corn.
At the top of the Mayan society there were kings, or “kuhul ajaw” (holy lords),
who claimed to be related to gods and followed a hereditary succession.
They were thought to serve as mediators between the gods and people on INCA CIVILIZATION IN MACHU PICCHU
THE INCA FIRST APPEARED IN THE ANDES REGION
DURING THE 12TH CENTURY A.D. AND GRADUALLY BUILT
A MASSIVE KINGDOM THROUGH THE MILITARY
STRENGTH OF THEIR EMPERORS, KNOWN AS
THE INCA STATE SPANNED THE DISTANCE OF NORTHERN
ECUADOR TO CENTRAL CHILE AND CONSISTED OF 12
MILLION INHABITANTS FROM MORE THAN 100
DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS AT ITS PEAK.
THERE WELL-DEVISED AGRICULTURAL AND ROADWAY
SYSTEMS, ALONG WITH A CENTRALIZED RELIGION AND
LANGUAGE, HELPED MAINTAIN A COHESIVE STATE.
DESPITE THEIR POWER, THE INCA WERE QUICKLY
OVERWHELMED BY THE DISEASES AND SUPERIOR
WEAPONRY OF SPANISH INVADERS, THE LAST BASTION
OF THEIR IMMENSE EMPIRE OVERTAKEN IN 1572. INCA CIVILIZATION MAP The Inca first appeared in
what is today
southeastern Peru during
the 12th century A.D.
According to some
versions of their origin
myths, they were created
by the sun god, Inti, who
sent his son Manco Capac
to Earth through the
middle of three caves in
the village of Paccari
After killing his brothers,
Manco Capac led his
sisters and their followers
through the wilderness The Inca religion centered on a
pantheon of gods that included Inti; a
creator god named Viracocha; and Apu
Illapu, the rain god.
Impressive shrines were built
throughout the kingdom, including a
massive Sun Temple in Cusco that
measured more than 1,200 feet in
Powerful priests depended on divination
to diagnose illness, solve crimes and
predict the outcomes of warfare, in
many cases requiring animal sacrifice.
The mummified remains of previous
emperors were also treated as sacred DIFFERENCES AMONG BOTH EMPIRES
Inca's empire was more vast more (developed) than the Aztec
◦Inca's method of communication was more advanced with the creation of a “runner
system” who carried messages to their capital and other areas within the empire.
Fun Fact: Inca roadrunner similar to a bike messenger or courier in present day.
Inca roadrunners carried mail, news, and orders all across the Empire and if it was
discovered that a message was not accurate or not sent, punishment was severe.
◦The locations were in different areas - Inca lived in the Andes Mountains and Aztec
resided in the Mexico Valley.
◦Inca used quipus for documentation and Aztec used codex.
What is a quipus and what is a codex?
"A quipu” is essentially a group of wool and cotton strings tied together. Quipus
was a tool used by the
Inca empire to communicate information
throughout the Inca Empire.
"Aztec codex' contained a use of writing that consisted of pictorial representations North American Indians
Wide-ranging and evolving societies
Mississippi Valley: Is an important part of the Indian American history
as the peak of the regions culture duration was between 900 & 1200
years. American Indians built towns, local canyons, constructed
dams and canals.
a.Ohio River Valley
f. Northeast WIDE-RANGING AND EVOLVING SOCIETIES VIKINGS?
• The Vikings are thought to be the first European explorers
to arrive in North America, having landed in what is now
Newfoundland, a present province of Canada, over 500
years before Columbus.
• Historical and archaeological evidence tells us that a
Norse colony in Greenland was established in the late
10th century and lasted until the mid-15th century.
• The remains of a Norse settlement at L’Anse aux
Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada, are dated to around
the year 1000.
• Continental North American settlements were small and
did not develop into permanent colonies.
• While voyages, to collect timber for example, are likely to
have occurred for some time, there is no evidence of
enduring Norse settlements on mainland North America. NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLES, 1492 Common characteristics among Indian societies
Native American Religion: They strongly believed in the
Spiritual Power. The natives also believed that the sacred spirits
were found in all kinds of living things for example in plants, trees,
water animals and plants.
Similarities faiths: Place of ritual; Views on natural and
Views on secular and religious
-Indian societies differed especially from European society. For example, woman engaged in
premarital sexual relations.
-Women also had an option to divorce their husbands.
-The children belong to the women not the men.
-Women represented a form of responsibility and primary providers.
-On the contrary if Indians would follow the English law a married man controlled the family’s goods.
-Europeans also saw natives as weak by allowing women to have independence. THE SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE GREAT INDIAN
CIVILIZATIONS COLONIAL ERA
• 1492 marks a watershed in modern world history.
• Columbus's voyage of discovery inaugurated a series of developments that would have vast
consequences for both the Old World and the New.
• It transformed the diets of both the eastern and western hemispheres, helped initiate the
Atlantic slave trade, spread diseases that had a devastating impact on Indian populations,
and led to the establishment of European colonies across the Western Hemisphere.
• Factors: rapid population growth, commerce, new learning, and the rise of competing nation
states that encouraged Europeans to explore and colonize new lands.
• It explains why Portugal and Spain were the first to become involved in overseas
exploration and why England and France were slow to challenge Spain’s supremacy in the
Americas. FIRST SPANISH PRESENCE IN NEW WORLD HISPANIOLA
• THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA (LA ISLA ESPAÑOLA)
WAS THE FIRST NEW WORLD COLONY SETTLED BY
• AS SUCH, IT SERVED AS THE LOGISTICAL BASE FOR
THE CONQUEST OF MOST OF THE WESTERN
• CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS FIRST SIGHTED THE
ISLAND IN 1492 TOWARD THE END OF HIS FIRST
VOYAGE TO "THE INDIES."
• COLUMBUS AND HIS CREW FOUND THE
ISLAND INHABITED BY A LARGE POPULATION OF
FRIENDLY TAINO INDIANS (ARAWAKS), WHO MADE
THE EXPLORERS WELCOME.
• THE LAND WAS FERTILE, BUT OF GREATER
IMPORTANCE TO THE SPANIARDS WAS THE HISPANIOLA IS CURRENTLY
HAITI CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS Contact
Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Christopher Columbus left his home in Italy to fight for his vision, he
set to sail West to the riches of Asia.
Upon the arrival of Columbus in 1492 in the Caribbean Islands, unknown to Columbus (and majority of
the Eastern Hemisphere), he landed on Islands located in the middle of two huge continents now known
as North America and South America
Also, Civilizations (that matched any in the world at that time) and thousands of smaller Nations and
Tribes. With recent estimations, the population may have been over 100 million people that spanned
from Alaska and Green Land, all the to the tip of southern South America.
Quest for westward route to Asia: He unfortunately was unsuccessful and conducted 4 voyages.
As Portugal, was under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator, attempted to send ships around
the continent of Africa, and King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain hired Christopher Columbus to
find a route to the East by going west. As strong supporters of the Catholic church, they sought to bring
Christianity to the East and any newly found lands, and hoped to find sources of wealth.
Sponsorship of Spain: The sponsorship of Queen Isabella who’s ambition was to bring back rare
goods. In Europe the nobles growth of wealth which came from trading with the EAST. (Spices, gold,
gemstones and silk) Trade soon declined and the Kings and Queens were in need of new routes for
goods trading to India. Columbus made three more voyages to the New World between 1493 and
• Columbus set out on his first of four voyages on August 3, 1492. Riding the trade winds westward across the
Atlantic Ocean with the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria, Columbus landed on an island he called San
Salvador, in the present-day Bahamas, five weeks after embarking from Spain.
• Columbus’ second voyage landed in the Caribbean, on an island he named Dominica, and continued
northward through the Lesser and Greater Antilles.
• On his third voyage, Columbus landed on the Portuguese Porto Santo Island before continuing on to
Madeira; the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, off the coast of West Africa; Trinidad, off the coast of presentday Venezuela; and mainland South America.
• Columbus’s fourth and final voyage across the Atlantic took him throughout Central America, including
Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. • These three subsequent voyages were made to explore and exploit the
riches and resources of the indigenous peoples in the Americas.
• Columbus had been granted authority by the Spanish monarchy to claim
land for Spain, begin a settlement, trade for valuable goods or gold, and
• He was also made governor of all the lands which he found and he
proved to be a savage and brutal governor.
• Columbus enslaved and stole from the indigenous people, at one point
threatening to cut off the hands of any person who failed to give him
• His brutal reign would foreshadow the arrival of the Conquistadors—
Spanish warriors who would plunder and destroy the large and wealthy
Aztec, Incan, and Mayan civilizations. AMERIGO
AMERIGO VESPUCCI WAS AN
FINANCIER, AND NAVIGATOR
WHO FIRST DEMONSTRATED
THAT BRAZIL AND THE WEST
INDIES DID NOT REPRESENT
ASIA'S EASTERN OUTSKIRTS
AS INITIALLY CONJECTURED
FROM COLUMBUS' VOYAGES,
BUT INSTEAD CONSTITUTED
AN ENTIRELY SEPARATE
LANDMASS. JOHN CABOT
EXPLORER JOHN CABOT MADE A BRITISH
CLAIM TO LAND IN CANADA, MISTAKING IT
FOR ASIA, DURING HIS 1497 VOYAGE ON
THE SHIP MATTHEW.
IN 1496 CABOT MADE A VOYAGE FROM
BRISTOL WITH ONE SHIP, BUT HE WAS
FORCED TO TURN BACK BECAUSE OF A
SHORTAGE OF FOOD, INCLEMENT
WEATHER, AND DISPUTES WITH HIS CREW.
IN MAY 1497, HOWEVER, HE SET SAIL
FROM BRISTOL IN THE SMALL SHIP
MATTHEW, WITH A CREW OF 18 MEN.
HE PROCEEDED AROUND IRELAND AND
THEN NORTH AND WEST, MAKING
LANDFALL ON THE MORNING OF JUNE 24.
THE EXACT LANDING PLACE HAS NEVER
BEEN DEFINITELY ESTABLISHED: IT HAS
BEEN VARIOUSLY BELIEVED TO BE IN
SOUTHERN NEWFOUNDLAND, OR CAPE
BRETON ISLAND. Cabot made his first try in 1496. It was a
failure. All we know about the voyage is
contained in a 1497 letter from John Day, an
English merchant in the Spanish trade, to
It states that [Cabot] went with one ship,
he had a disagreement with the crew, he was
short of food and ran into bad weather, and
he decided to turn back." The following year,
Cabot had better luck. PEDRO ÁLVARES CABRAL
PEDRO ÁLVARES CABRAL WAS A PORTUGUESE NOBLEMAN, MILITARY
COMMANDER, NAVIGATOR AND EXPLORER REGARDED AS THE
DISCOVERER OF BRAZIL.
CABRAL CONDUCTED THE FIRST SUBSTANTIAL EXPLORATION OF THE
NORTHEAST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA AND CLAIMED IT FOR PORTUGAL.
WHILE DETAILS OF CABRAL'S EARLY LIFE ARE UNCLEAR, IT IS KNOWN
THAT HE CAME FROM A MINOR NOBLE FAMILY AND RECEIVED A GOOD
CABRAL WAS APPOINTED TO HEAD AN EXPEDITION TO INDIA IN 1500,
FOLLOWING VASCO DA GAMA'S NEWLY OPENED ROUTE AROUND AFRICA.
THE OBJECT OF THE UNDERTAKING WAS TO RETURN WITH VALUABLE
SPICES AND TO ESTABLISH TRADE RELATIONS IN INDIA—BYPASSING THE
MONOPOLY ON THE SPICE TRADE THEN IN THE HANDS OF ARAB, TURKISH
AND ITALIAN MERCHANTS.
ALTHOUGH THE PREVIOUS EXPEDITION OF VASCO DA GAMA TO INDIA, ON
ITS SEA ROUTE, RECORDED SIGNS OF LAND WEST OF THE SOUTHERN
ATLANTIC OCEAN, CABRAL IS REGARDED AS THE FIRST CAPTAIN WHO
EVER TOUCHED FOUR CONTINENTS, LEADING THE FIRST EXPEDITION
THAT UNITED EUROPE, AFRICA, AMERICA, AND ASIA. CONQUISTADORES & EXPLORER’S
VASCO NÚÑEZ DE
SPANISH EXPLORER FERDINAND
FERDINAND MAGELLAN WAS A
PORTUGUESE EXPLORER WHO
ORGANIZED THE CASTILIAN
EXPEDITION TO THE EAST INDIES
FROM 1519 TO 1522, RESULTING
IN THE FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATION
OF THE EARTH BY JUAN
SEBASTIÁN ELCANO. HERNÁN CORTÉS
SPANISH CONQUISTADOR. HE LED
AN EXPEDITION THAT CAUSED THE
FALL OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE AND
BROUGHT LARGE PORTIONS OF
MAINLAND MEXICO UNDER THE
RULE OF THE KING OF CASTILE IN
THE EARLY 16TH CENTURY FRANCISCO PIZARRO GONZALEZ
Francisco Pizarro González
was a Spanish conquistador
who led an expedition that
conquered the Inca Empire.
He captured and killed
Incan emperor Atahualpa
and claimed the lands for
Spain. The Columbian Exchange: An Overview
The Columbian Exchange refers to a period of cultural and biological exchanges between
the New and Old Worlds. Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native
American ways of life.
Beginning after Columbus' discovery in 1492 the exchange lasted throughout the years of
expansion and discovery. The Columbian Exchange impacted the social and cultural makeup of both sides of the
Advancements in agricultural production, evolution of warfare, increased mortality rates
and education are a few examples of the effect of the Columbian Exchange on both
Europeans and Native Americans. • Indians taught Europeans about tobacco, corn, potatoes, and varieties of beans, peanuts,
tomatoes, and other crops unknown in Europe.
• In return, Europeans introduced the Indians to wheat, oats, barley, and rice, as well as to grapes
for wine and various melons. Europeans also brought with them domesticated animals including
horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle.
• Even the natural environment was transformed. Europeans cleared vast tracts of forested land and
inadvertently introduced Old World weeds.
• The introduction of cattle, goats, horses, sheep, and swine also transformed the ecology as grazing
animals ate up many native plants and disrupted indigenous systems of agriculture. The horse,
extinct in the New World for ten thousand years, encouraged many farming peoples to become
hunters and herders.
• The exchange, however, was not evenly balanced. Killer diseases killed millions of Indians. The
survivors were drawn into European trading networks that disrupted earlier patterns of life. SLAVERY IN THE NEW WORLD
• The Spanish were the first Europeans to use enslaved Africans in the New World on islands such
as Cuba and Hispaniola.
• The alarming death rate experienced by the indigenous population had spurred the first royal
Spanish laws protecting them, and consequently, the first enslaved Africans arrived in Hispaniola
• Increasing penetration into the Americas by the Portuguese created more demand for labor in
Brazil—primarily for farming and mining.
• Slave-based economies quickly spread to the Caribbean and the southern portion of what is today
the United State...
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