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Unformatted text preview: A NEW WORLD HISTORY 11 CHAPTER 1 Pre-Columbian Era Approximately 30,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians, the ancestors of Native Americans, followed herds of animals from Siberia across Beringia, a land bridge connecting Asia and North America, into Alaska. By 8,000 B.C.E., these peoples had spread across North and South America. No one knows for sure how many Indians lived in the Western Hemisphere in 1492, but the number was in the millions. In no sense were the Americas “virgin”/unoccupied lands. These early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. At least 2,000 distinct languages were spoken in the Americas in 1492. Cultural differences were marked. Some Indian peoples belonged to small bands of hunters and gatherers; some practiced sophisticated irrigated agriculture. Complex, agriculturally-based cultures developed in a number of regions, including the Mayas and Aztecs in Mesoamerica, the Incas in Peru, and the Mound-builders and Mississippians in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. The bridge connecting Asia and North America, through Alaska AZTEC CIVILIZATION IN TENOCHTITLAN THE AZTECS, WHO PROBABLY ORIGINATED AS A NOMADIC TRIBE IN NORTHERN MEXICO, ARRIVED IN MESOAMERICA AROUND THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY. FROM THEIR MAGNIFICENT CAPITAL CITY, TENOCHTITLAN, THE AZTECS EMERGED AS THE DOMINANT FORCE IN CENTRAL MEXICO, DEVELOPING AN INTRICATE SOCIAL, POLITICAL, RELIGIOUS AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION THAT BROUGHT MANY OF THE REGION’S CITY-STATES UNDER THEIR CONTROL BY THE 15TH CENTURY. INVADERS LED BY THE SPANISH CONQUISTADOR HERNAN CORTES OVERTHREW THE AZTECS BY FORCE AND CAPTURED TENOCHTITLAN IN 1521, BRINGING AN END TO MESOAMERICA’S LAST GREAT NATIVE CIVILIZATION. A HUGE MARKETPLACE SERVED NEARLY 60,000 PEOPLE DAILY, AND IN THE SACRED PRECINCT OF THE CITY WERE PALACES AND TEMPLES THE LIKE OF WHICH HERNÁN CORTÉS HAD NEVER SEEN. CORTÉS WAS AWED; BUT IT DIDN'T STOP HIM FROM DESTROYING ALMOST ALL OF THE CITY'S BUILDINGS DURING HIS CONQUEST . Early Aztec History The Aztecs appeared in Mesoamerica–as the south-central region of pre-Columbian Mexico is known–in the early 13th century. Their arrival came just after, or perhaps helped bring about, the fall of the previously dominant Mesoamerican civilization, the Toltecs. Tenochtitlán, is currently located in the heart of what is now Mexico City, it became to be one of the largest city and capital of the Aztec empire. Today, Mexico City is still one of the largest cities in the world, despite its unusual setting. It sits on a swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco in the Basin of Mexico, a strange place for any capital, ancient or modern. Mexico City is ringed by volcanic mountains, including the still-active volcano Popocatépetl, and prone to earthquakes, severe flooding, and some of the worst smog on the planet. Although the conquistador Hernán Cortés did his best to dismantle the city, three 16th century maps of Tenochtitlan survive showing us what the city was like. The earliest map is the Nuremberg or Cortes map of 1524, drawn for the conquistador Cortés, possibly by a local resident. THE CORTES MAP 1524 CURRENT AERIAL VIEW OF MEXICO CITY Why did the Aztecs select Tenochtitlan? When the Aztecs saw an eagle on a cactus on the marshy land near the southwest border of Lake Texcoco, they took it as a sign to build their settlement there. They drained the swampy land, constructed artificial islands on which they could plant gardens and established the foundations of their capital city, Tenochtitlán, in 1325 A.D. (But keep in mind that the Toltecs had resided approximately 40 kilometers in the 4th century away from Tenochtitlan). Typical Aztec crops included maize (corn), along with beans, squashes, potatoes, tomatoes and avocados; they also supported themselves through fishing and hunting local animals such as rabbits, armadillos, snakes, coyotes and wild turkey. Their relatively sophisticated system of agriculture (including intensive cultivation of land and irrigation methods) and a powerful military tradition would enable the Aztecs to build a successful state, and later an empire. MAYAN EMPIRE The Maya Empire, centered in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala, the Yucatan Peninsula, El Salvador, Belize, and part of Honduras GG It also reached the peak of its power and influence around the sixth century A.D. The Maya excelled at agriculture, pottery, hieroglyph writing, calendarmaking and mathematics, and left behind an astonishing amount of impressive architecture and symbolic artwork. Most of the great stone cities of the Maya were abandoned by A.D. 900. Excavations of Maya sites have unearthed plazas, palaces, temples and pyramids, as well as courts for playing the ball games that were ritually and politically significant to Maya culture. Maya cities were surrounded and supported by a large population of farmers. The Maya practiced a primitive type of “slash-and-burn” agriculture, they also displayed evidence of more advanced farming methods, such as irrigation and terracing. The Maya were deeply religious, and worshiped various gods related to nature, including the gods of the sun, the moon, rain and corn. At the top of the Mayan society there were kings, or “kuhul ajaw” (holy lords), who claimed to be related to gods and followed a hereditary succession. They were thought to serve as mediators between the gods and people on INCA CIVILIZATION IN MACHU PICCHU THE INCA FIRST APPEARED IN THE ANDES REGION DURING THE 12TH CENTURY A.D. AND GRADUALLY BUILT A MASSIVE KINGDOM THROUGH THE MILITARY STRENGTH OF THEIR EMPERORS, KNOWN AS TAWANTINSUYU. THE INCA STATE SPANNED THE DISTANCE OF NORTHERN ECUADOR TO CENTRAL CHILE AND CONSISTED OF 12 MILLION INHABITANTS FROM MORE THAN 100 DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS AT ITS PEAK. THERE WELL-DEVISED AGRICULTURAL AND ROADWAY SYSTEMS, ALONG WITH A CENTRALIZED RELIGION AND LANGUAGE, HELPED MAINTAIN A COHESIVE STATE. DESPITE THEIR POWER, THE INCA WERE QUICKLY OVERWHELMED BY THE DISEASES AND SUPERIOR WEAPONRY OF SPANISH INVADERS, THE LAST BASTION OF THEIR IMMENSE EMPIRE OVERTAKEN IN 1572. INCA CIVILIZATION MAP The Inca first appeared in what is today southeastern Peru during the 12th century A.D. According to some versions of their origin myths, they were created by the sun god, Inti, who sent his son Manco Capac to Earth through the middle of three caves in the village of Paccari Tampu. After killing his brothers, Manco Capac led his sisters and their followers through the wilderness The Inca religion centered on a pantheon of gods that included Inti; a creator god named Viracocha; and Apu Illapu, the rain god. Impressive shrines were built throughout the kingdom, including a massive Sun Temple in Cusco that measured more than 1,200 feet in circumference. Powerful priests depended on divination to diagnose illness, solve crimes and predict the outcomes of warfare, in many cases requiring animal sacrifice. The mummified remains of previous emperors were also treated as sacred DIFFERENCES AMONG BOTH EMPIRES Inca's empire was more vast more (developed) than the Aztec ◦Inca's method of communication was more advanced with the creation of a “runner system” who carried messages to their capital and other areas within the empire. Fun Fact: Inca roadrunner similar to a bike messenger or courier in present day. Inca roadrunners carried mail, news, and orders all across the Empire and if it was discovered that a message was not accurate or not sent, punishment was severe. ◦The locations were in different areas - Inca lived in the Andes Mountains and Aztec resided in the Mexico Valley. ◦Inca used quipus for documentation and Aztec used codex. What is a quipus and what is a codex? "A quipu” is essentially a group of wool and cotton strings tied together. Quipus was a tool used by the Inca empire to communicate information throughout the Inca Empire. "Aztec codex' contained a use of writing that consisted of pictorial representations North American Indians Wide-ranging and evolving societies Mississippi Valley: Is an important part of the Indian American history as the peak of the regions culture duration was between 900 & 1200 years. American Indians built towns, local canyons, constructed dams and canals. a.Ohio River Valley b.Southwest c.West Coast d.Great Plains e.Southeast f. Northeast WIDE-RANGING AND EVOLVING SOCIETIES VIKINGS? • The Vikings are thought to be the first European explorers to arrive in North America, having landed in what is now Newfoundland, a present province of Canada, over 500 years before Columbus. • Historical and archaeological evidence tells us that a Norse colony in Greenland was established in the late 10th century and lasted until the mid-15th century. • The remains of a Norse settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada, are dated to around the year 1000. • Continental North American settlements were small and did not develop into permanent colonies. • While voyages, to collect timber for example, are likely to have occurred for some time, there is no evidence of enduring Norse settlements on mainland North America. NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLES, 1492 Common characteristics among Indian societies Native American Religion: They strongly believed in the Spiritual Power. The natives also believed that the sacred spirits were found in all kinds of living things for example in plants, trees, water animals and plants. Similarities faiths: Place of ritual; Views on natural and supernatural; Views on secular and religious Gender Relations: -Indian societies differed especially from European society. For example, woman engaged in premarital sexual relations. -Women also had an option to divorce their husbands. -The children belong to the women not the men. -Women represented a form of responsibility and primary providers. -On the contrary if Indians would follow the English law a married man controlled the family’s goods. -Europeans also saw natives as weak by allowing women to have independence. THE SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE GREAT INDIAN CIVILIZATIONS COLONIAL ERA • 1492 marks a watershed in modern world history. • Columbus's voyage of discovery inaugurated a series of developments that would have vast consequences for both the Old World and the New. • It transformed the diets of both the eastern and western hemispheres, helped initiate the Atlantic slave trade, spread diseases that had a devastating impact on Indian populations, and led to the establishment of European colonies across the Western Hemisphere. • Factors: rapid population growth, commerce, new learning, and the rise of competing nation states that encouraged Europeans to explore and colonize new lands. • It explains why Portugal and Spain were the first to become involved in overseas exploration and why England and France were slow to challenge Spain’s supremacy in the Americas. FIRST SPANISH PRESENCE IN NEW WORLD HISPANIOLA • THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA (LA ISLA ESPAÑOLA) WAS THE FIRST NEW WORLD COLONY SETTLED BY SPAIN. • AS SUCH, IT SERVED AS THE LOGISTICAL BASE FOR THE CONQUEST OF MOST OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE. • CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS FIRST SIGHTED THE ISLAND IN 1492 TOWARD THE END OF HIS FIRST VOYAGE TO "THE INDIES." • COLUMBUS AND HIS CREW FOUND THE ISLAND INHABITED BY A LARGE POPULATION OF FRIENDLY TAINO INDIANS (ARAWAKS), WHO MADE THE EXPLORERS WELCOME. • THE LAND WAS FERTILE, BUT OF GREATER IMPORTANCE TO THE SPANIARDS WAS THE HISPANIOLA IS CURRENTLY HAITI CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS Contact Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Christopher Columbus left his home in Italy to fight for his vision, he set to sail West to the riches of Asia. Upon the arrival of Columbus in 1492 in the Caribbean Islands, unknown to Columbus (and majority of the Eastern Hemisphere), he landed on Islands located in the middle of two huge continents now known as North America and South America Also, Civilizations (that matched any in the world at that time) and thousands of smaller Nations and Tribes. With recent estimations, the population may have been over 100 million people that spanned from Alaska and Green Land, all the to the tip of southern South America. Quest for westward route to Asia: He unfortunately was unsuccessful and conducted 4 voyages. As Portugal, was under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator, attempted to send ships around the continent of Africa, and King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain hired Christopher Columbus to find a route to the East by going west. As strong supporters of the Catholic church, they sought to bring Christianity to the East and any newly found lands, and hoped to find sources of wealth. Sponsorship of Spain: The sponsorship of Queen Isabella who’s ambition was to bring back rare goods. In Europe the nobles growth of wealth which came from trading with the EAST. (Spices, gold, gemstones and silk) Trade soon declined and the Kings and Queens were in need of new routes for goods trading to India. Columbus made three more voyages to the New World between 1493 and 1504. • Columbus set out on his first of four voyages on August 3, 1492. Riding the trade winds westward across the Atlantic Ocean with the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria, Columbus landed on an island he called San Salvador, in the present-day Bahamas, five weeks after embarking from Spain. • Columbus’ second voyage landed in the Caribbean, on an island he named Dominica, and continued northward through the Lesser and Greater Antilles. • On his third voyage, Columbus landed on the Portuguese Porto Santo Island before continuing on to Madeira; the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, off the coast of West Africa; Trinidad, off the coast of presentday Venezuela; and mainland South America. • Columbus’s fourth and final voyage across the Atlantic took him throughout Central America, including Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. • These three subsequent voyages were made to explore and exploit the riches and resources of the indigenous peoples in the Americas. • Columbus had been granted authority by the Spanish monarchy to claim land for Spain, begin a settlement, trade for valuable goods or gold, and explore. • He was also made governor of all the lands which he found and he proved to be a savage and brutal governor. • Columbus enslaved and stole from the indigenous people, at one point threatening to cut off the hands of any person who failed to give him gold. • His brutal reign would foreshadow the arrival of the Conquistadors— Spanish warriors who would plunder and destroy the large and wealthy Aztec, Incan, and Mayan civilizations. AMERIGO VESPUCCI AMERIGO VESPUCCI WAS AN ITALIAN EXPLORER, FINANCIER, AND NAVIGATOR WHO FIRST DEMONSTRATED THAT BRAZIL AND THE WEST INDIES DID NOT REPRESENT ASIA'S EASTERN OUTSKIRTS AS INITIALLY CONJECTURED FROM COLUMBUS' VOYAGES, BUT INSTEAD CONSTITUTED AN ENTIRELY SEPARATE LANDMASS. JOHN CABOT EXPLORER JOHN CABOT MADE A BRITISH CLAIM TO LAND IN CANADA, MISTAKING IT FOR ASIA, DURING HIS 1497 VOYAGE ON THE SHIP MATTHEW. IN 1496 CABOT MADE A VOYAGE FROM BRISTOL WITH ONE SHIP, BUT HE WAS FORCED TO TURN BACK BECAUSE OF A SHORTAGE OF FOOD, INCLEMENT WEATHER, AND DISPUTES WITH HIS CREW. IN MAY 1497, HOWEVER, HE SET SAIL FROM BRISTOL IN THE SMALL SHIP MATTHEW, WITH A CREW OF 18 MEN. HE PROCEEDED AROUND IRELAND AND THEN NORTH AND WEST, MAKING LANDFALL ON THE MORNING OF JUNE 24. THE EXACT LANDING PLACE HAS NEVER BEEN DEFINITELY ESTABLISHED: IT HAS BEEN VARIOUSLY BELIEVED TO BE IN SOUTHERN NEWFOUNDLAND, OR CAPE BRETON ISLAND. Cabot made his first try in 1496. It was a failure. All we know about the voyage is contained in a 1497 letter from John Day, an English merchant in the Spanish trade, to Christopher Columbus. It states that [Cabot] went with one ship, he had a disagreement with the crew, he was short of food and ran into bad weather, and he decided to turn back." The following year, Cabot had better luck. PEDRO ÁLVARES CABRAL PEDRO ÁLVARES CABRAL WAS A PORTUGUESE NOBLEMAN, MILITARY COMMANDER, NAVIGATOR AND EXPLORER REGARDED AS THE DISCOVERER OF BRAZIL. CABRAL CONDUCTED THE FIRST SUBSTANTIAL EXPLORATION OF THE NORTHEAST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA AND CLAIMED IT FOR PORTUGAL. WHILE DETAILS OF CABRAL'S EARLY LIFE ARE UNCLEAR, IT IS KNOWN THAT HE CAME FROM A MINOR NOBLE FAMILY AND RECEIVED A GOOD EDUCATION. CABRAL WAS APPOINTED TO HEAD AN EXPEDITION TO INDIA IN 1500, FOLLOWING VASCO DA GAMA'S NEWLY OPENED ROUTE AROUND AFRICA. THE OBJECT OF THE UNDERTAKING WAS TO RETURN WITH VALUABLE SPICES AND TO ESTABLISH TRADE RELATIONS IN INDIA—BYPASSING THE MONOPOLY ON THE SPICE TRADE THEN IN THE HANDS OF ARAB, TURKISH AND ITALIAN MERCHANTS. ALTHOUGH THE PREVIOUS EXPEDITION OF VASCO DA GAMA TO INDIA, ON ITS SEA ROUTE, RECORDED SIGNS OF LAND WEST OF THE SOUTHERN ATLANTIC OCEAN, CABRAL IS REGARDED AS THE FIRST CAPTAIN WHO EVER TOUCHED FOUR CONTINENTS, LEADING THE FIRST EXPEDITION THAT UNITED EUROPE, AFRICA, AMERICA, AND ASIA. CONQUISTADORES & EXPLORER’S VASCO NÚÑEZ DE BALBOA SPANISH EXPLORER FERDINAND MAGELLAN'S PORTUGUESE EXPLORER. FERDINAND MAGELLAN WAS A PORTUGUESE EXPLORER WHO ORGANIZED THE CASTILIAN EXPEDITION TO THE EAST INDIES FROM 1519 TO 1522, RESULTING IN THE FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF THE EARTH BY JUAN SEBASTIÁN ELCANO. HERNÁN CORTÉS SPANISH CONQUISTADOR. HE LED AN EXPEDITION THAT CAUSED THE FALL OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE AND BROUGHT LARGE PORTIONS OF MAINLAND MEXICO UNDER THE RULE OF THE KING OF CASTILE IN THE EARLY 16TH CENTURY FRANCISCO PIZARRO GONZALEZ Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa and claimed the lands for Spain. The Columbian Exchange: An Overview The Columbian Exchange refers to a period of cultural and biological exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways of life. Beginning after Columbus' discovery in 1492 the exchange lasted throughout the years of expansion and discovery. The Columbian Exchange impacted the social and cultural makeup of both sides of the Atlantic. Advancements in agricultural production, evolution of warfare, increased mortality rates and education are a few examples of the effect of the Columbian Exchange on both Europeans and Native Americans. • Indians taught Europeans about tobacco, corn, potatoes, and varieties of beans, peanuts, tomatoes, and other crops unknown in Europe. • In return, Europeans introduced the Indians to wheat, oats, barley, and rice, as well as to grapes for wine and various melons. Europeans also brought with them domesticated animals including horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle. • Even the natural environment was transformed. Europeans cleared vast tracts of forested land and inadvertently introduced Old World weeds. • The introduction of cattle, goats, horses, sheep, and swine also transformed the ecology as grazing animals ate up many native plants and disrupted indigenous systems of agriculture. The horse, extinct in the New World for ten thousand years, encouraged many farming peoples to become hunters and herders. • The exchange, however, was not evenly balanced. Killer diseases killed millions of Indians. The survivors were drawn into European trading networks that disrupted earlier patterns of life. SLAVERY IN THE NEW WORLD • The Spanish were the first Europeans to use enslaved Africans in the New World on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola. • The alarming death rate experienced by the indigenous population had spurred the first royal Spanish laws protecting them, and consequently, the first enslaved Africans arrived in Hispaniola in 1501. • Increasing penetration into the Americas by the Portuguese created more demand for labor in Brazil—primarily for farming and mining. • Slave-based economies quickly spread to the Caribbean and the southern portion of what is today the United State...
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