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Ellie Guyon AP Euro 2/18/17 AP Euro DBQ: 19th Century Nationalism The nineteenth century brought about massive change for Europe. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, many powerful empires like the Spanish, Holy Roman, and Napoleonic, had collapsed, and in its place nations like Britain, Russia, Germany, and Italy rose to prominence. With this switch in power, came a new surge of nationalism in Europe, which in its practice broke up many large empires that contained numerous ethnicities and cultures, into nation states, and contributed to the outbreak of war. This occurred due to the new sense of cultural pride and desire for individual recognition felt by groups and states within larger nations, and the need for independence from overbearing countries through force. As a result of nationalism, states and cultural groups called for independence from large empires and were prepared to achieve this through blood and iron. Nationalism stemmed from the shift of power in European nations and it led to the emergence of smaller nation states, because individual groups gained prominence and therefore culture, and this new culture pushed people to feel pride for their country and desire of recognition of an independent empire. As a result of this, large empires made up of many states were broken up. The Napoleonic wars contributed greatly to the birth of nationalism, as the French revolution introduced ideas of liberalism and national self-determination, and these ideas were spread during the Napoleonic wars when territories were redefined by France’s victories and losses against foreign countries that oppressed them. As a chain reaction, a strong resentment
to foreign rule occurred in other countries and nationalistic ideas urged on the fight for independent recognition. One of the most prominent states that rose up in the 19th century was Italy, which fought against the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs who controlled the predominantly italian-speaking northeastern part of what is now present day Italy. One of the first unifications in this process was the unification of the kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia. Document three provides an excerpt from one of the Italian nationalist leaders responsible for the insurrection of Piedmont-Sardinia, Count Cavour. Cavour was made prime minister of Piedmont Sardinia in 1852 and he provided the “brains” for Italian unification, so therefore his purpose