FM 3-04.240 Instrument Flight for Army Aviators.pdf - FM 3-04.240(FM 1-240 Instrument Flight for Army Aviators April 2007 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION

FM 3-04.240 Instrument Flight for Army Aviators.pdf - FM...

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Unformatted text preview: FM 3-04.240 (FM 1-240) Instrument Flight for Army Aviators April 2007 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Headquarters, Department of the Army This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online ( ) and General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library at ( ). *FM 3-04.240 (FM 1-240) Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC,30 April 2007 Field Manual No. 3-04.240 Instrument Flight for Army Aviators Contents Page PREFACE .............................................................................................................xi Chapter 1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS ........................................................ 1-1 Section I – Pitot-Static Systems...................................................................... 1-1 Altimeter.............................................................................................................. 1-2 Airspeed Indicator............................................................................................... 1-7 Vertical Speed Indicator ..................................................................................... 1-8 Section II – Compass Systems ..................................................................... 1-10 Magnetic Compass........................................................................................... 1-10 Radio Magnetic Indicator.................................................................................. 1-15 Section III – Gyroscopic Systems ................................................................. 1-16 Gyroscope ........................................................................................................ 1-16 Attitude Indicator............................................................................................... 1-17 Turn-and-Slip Indicator/Turn Coordinator ........................................................ 1-18 Section IV – Flight Management System ..................................................... 1-20 Horizontal Situation Indicator ........................................................................... 1-20 Vertical Situation Indicator................................................................................ 1-21 Chapter 2 ROTARY WING INSTRUMENT FLIGHT MANEUVERS .................................. 2-1 Section I – Maneuver Performance................................................................. 2-1 Instruments......................................................................................................... 2-1 Performance ....................................................................................................... 2-2 Procedural Steps ................................................................................................ 2-3 Primary and Supporting Methods....................................................................... 2-3 Section II – Flight Management System......................................................... 2-5 Cross-Check....................................................................................................... 2-5 Instrument Interpretation .................................................................................... 2-7 Aircraft Control.................................................................................................... 2-8 Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes FM 1-240, 15 December 1984. 30 April 2007 i Contents Section III – Instrument Takeoff.......................................................................2-8 Preparing.............................................................................................................2-9 Performing From Hover/Ground .........................................................................2-9 Takeoff ................................................................................................................2-9 Common Errors.................................................................................................2-10 Section IV – Straight-and-Level Flight ..........................................................2-10 Pitch Attitude Control ........................................................................................2-10 Bank Control .....................................................................................................2-12 Power Control ...................................................................................................2-13 Common Errors.................................................................................................2-15 Section V – Straight Climbs and Descents ..................................................2-15 Climbs ...............................................................................................................2-15 Descents ...........................................................................................................2-17 Common Errors.................................................................................................2-18 Section VI – Turns...........................................................................................2-18 Predetermined Heading ....................................................................................2-19 Timed ................................................................................................................2-19 Changing Airspeed ...........................................................................................2-20 Compass ...........................................................................................................2-20 Thirty-Degree Bank...........................................................................................2-22 Climbing and Descending .................................................................................2-22 Common Errors.................................................................................................2-23 Section VII – Other Maneuvers ......................................................................2-23 Unusual Attitudes ..............................................................................................2-23 Autorotations .....................................................................................................2-23 Chapter 3 FIXED WING INSTUMENT FLIGHT MANEUVERS ..........................................3-1 Section I – Instrument Takeoff.........................................................................3-1 Takeoff ................................................................................................................3-1 Common Takeoff Errors and Resolutions...........................................................3-2 Section II – Straight-and-Level Flight .............................................................3-2 Pitch Control........................................................................................................3-2 Bank Control .......................................................................................................3-6 Power Control .....................................................................................................3-8 Trim Technique .................................................................................................3-12 Section III – Straight Climbs and Descents..................................................3-12 Climbs ...............................................................................................................3-12 Descents ...........................................................................................................3-16 Common Climb and Descent Errors and Resolutions ......................................3-18 Section IV – Turns...........................................................................................3-19 Standard-Rate Turns ........................................................................................3-19 Steep Turns.......................................................................................................3-20 Climbing and Descending Turns.......................................................................3-21 Change of Airspeed During Turns ....................................................................3-21 Common Turn Errors ........................................................................................3-22 ii FM 3-04.240 30 April 2007 Contents Section V – Other Maneuvers........................................................................ 3-24 Approach to Stall .............................................................................................. 3-24 Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries ................................................................... 3-24 Chapter 4 AIR NAVIGATION CHARTS.............................................................................. 4-1 Section I – Air Navigation ................................................................................ 4-1 Measuring a Position Using Latitude and Longitude.......................................... 4-1 Measuring Direction ........................................................................................... 4-3 Navigation Charts ............................................................................................... 4-4 Departure Procedure Chart .............................................................................. 4-11 Standard Terminal Arrival Route Charts .......................................................... 4-11 Instrument Approach Procedure Chart ............................................................ 4-11 Inoperative Components .................................................................................. 4-24 Section II – Plotting and Measuring.............................................................. 4-24 Plotter ............................................................................................................... 4-24 Measurements and Course Lines .................................................................... 4-26 Chapter 5 AIR NAVIGATION HANDHELD COMPUTER................................................... 5-1 Section I – Calculator Side .............................................................................. 5-1 Values................................................................................................................. 5-1 Indexes ............................................................................................................... 5-2 Time and Distance.............................................................................................. 5-2 Short Time and Distance (Use of the 36 Index) ................................................. 5-3 Computing Time for Outbound Leg During Holding ........................................... 5-4 Fuel Consumption .............................................................................................. 5-6 True Airspeed ..................................................................................................... 5-8 Distance Conversion .......................................................................................... 5-9 True Altitude Calculation .................................................................................. 5-11 Multiplication and Division Calculations ........................................................... 5-11 Converting Distance to Time ............................................................................ 5-12 Section II – Wind Side .................................................................................... 5-13 Disk and Correction Scales .............................................................................. 5-13 Reversible Grid................................................................................................. 5-13 Determining Heading and Ground Speed ........................................................ 5-14 Determining Unknown Wind............................................................................. 5-15 Determining Altitude for Most Favorable Wind................................................. 5-16 Determining Radius of Action........................................................................... 5-17 Chapter 6 30 April 2007 INSTRUMENT WEATHER................................................................................. 6-1 Effects of Wind ................................................................................................... 6-1 Turbulence.......................................................................................................... 6-3 Structural Icing.................................................................................................... 6-4 Fog...................................................................................................................... 6-5 Volcanic Ash....................................................................................................... 6-5 Thunderstorms ................................................................................................... 6-6 Wind Shear......................................................................................................... 6-6 FM 3-04.240 iii Contents Chapter 7 NAVIGATION AIDS............................................................................................7-1 Section I – Basic Radio Principles ..................................................................7-1 Radio Wave Propagation ....................................................................................7-1 Types of Waves ..................................................................................................7-1 Radio Wave Reception Disturbances .................................................................7-2 Precautions .........................................................................................................7-3 Section II – Navigation Systems......................................................................7-3 NonDirectional Radio Beacon.............................................................................7-3 Very High Frequency OmniDirectional Range....................................................7-5 Tactical Air Navigation ........................................................................................7-8 Very High Frequency OmniDirectional Range/Tactical Air Navigation.............7-10 Distance Measuring Equipment........................................................................7-10 Global Positioning System ................................................................................7-11 Inertial Navigation System ................................................................................7-14 Section III – Navigation Procedures..............................................................7-14 Application.........................................................................................................7-14 Homing to a Station ..........................................................................................7-16 Tracking to a Station .........................................................................................7-16 Course Intercept ...............................................................................................7-21 Arc Interceptions ...............................................................................................7-27 Area Navigation.................................................................................................7-30 Global Positioning System Navigation..............................................................7-32 Chapter 8 AIRSPACE..........................................................................................................8-1 Section I – National Airspace System.............................................................8-1 Airspace Classification........................................................................................8-1 Special-Use Airspace..........................................................................................8-3 Other Airspace ....................................................................................................8-4 Federal Airway ....................................................................................................8-5 Section II – International Civil Aviation Organization ...................................8-7 Safety ..................................................................................................................8-7 Applicability .........................................................................................................8-7 Current Information and Procedures ..................................................................8-7 Terminal Instrument Approach Procedures ........................................................8-7 Compliance .........................................................................................................8-8 Definitions ...........................................................................................................8-8 Departure Procedures.........................................................................................8-8 Approach Procedures .......................................................................................8-10 Holding ..............................................................................................................8-17 Altimeter Setting Procedures ............................................................................8-19 Transponder Operating Procedures .................................................................8-20 Chapter 9 iv AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM...................................................................9-1 Communications .................................................................................................9-1 Control Sequence ...............................................................................................9-6 Letters of Agreement ..........................................................................................9-8 FM 3-04.240 30 April 2007 Contents Chapter 10 INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES INFORMATION AND PROCEDURES ........ 10-1 Section I – Sources of Flight Planning Information.................................... 10-1 Department of Defense Flight Information Publications................................... 10-1 Civil Publications .............................................................................................. 10-3 Section II – Instrument Flight Rules Flight Plan.......................................... 10-4 Filing ................................................................................................................. 10-4 Canceling.......................................................................................................... 10-8 Section III – Clearances ................................................................................. 10-8 Separations ...................................................................................................... 10-9 Visual Flight Rules-on-Top ............................................................................. 10-10 Visual Flight Rules Over-the-Top ................................................................... 10-11 Section IV – Notice to Airmen System ....................................................... 10-11 Notice to Airmen ............................................................................................. 10-11 Notices to Airmen Types ................................................................................ 10-12 Internet Distribution System ........................................................................... 10-13 Section V – Navigation Opt...
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