march 18 2008

march 18 2008 - Anthropology Notes March 18, 2008 The...

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Anthropology Notes March 18, 2008 The Emergence of Cities and States - total interdependence What is Civilization? - city – size settlement o large area and a lot of people in it - social stratification - governed by ruling elite o centralized political systems known as “states” o prior to approx 6000 ya, it was mostly egalitarian; after 6000 ya,  we see larger settlements and evidence of social stratification Transition from rural to urban - agricultural innovation o small number of people that are feeding everyone o intensive agriculture o irrigation canals, raised fields, terracing o food production on own time o first evidence in Egypt and Mesopotamia - diversification of labor o craft specialists (experts) o technological innovation o bronze age not in America America didn’t have bronze, only softer metals like  silver and gold - central government o governing elite manage regulatory problems
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march 18 2008 - Anthropology Notes March 18, 2008 The...

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