Chapter 12 Folding and Faulting

Chapter 12 Folding - Crustal Deformation Processes Chapter 12 Tectonics Earthquakes and Volcanism Folding Faulting Rocks are subject to powerful

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1 Chapter 12 Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanism Crustal Deformation Processes Rocks are subject to powerful stresses Tectonic forces Gravity The weight of overlying rock Strain: response of the rock to these stresses Over the geologic time span and in the presence of forces as great as plate tectonics, rocks are pliable Crustal Deformation Processes Whether a rock bends or breaks depends on Composition (type of minerals, water), temperature, how much and how long the pressure on the rock are etc. Ductile or brittle Ductile Æ deforms by a change on shape Brittle Æ deforms by fracture If the forces are gentle, slow, and/or the rock is ductile Æ bending (folding) If the forces are violent, abrupt, and/or the rock is brittle Æ tearing (faulting) Crustal Deformation Processes Stress – strain – surface expression? Plate boundaries Diverging boundaries Converging boundaries Transform boundaries
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2 Folding It can occur in various spatial scales: From hundreds of meters thick rock units to microscopic structures Most often they occur in a series of undulations Folding Anticline Æ upholding, arching Syncline Æ downfolding, trough Axis of anticline, axis of syncline
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2008 for the course GEOG 203 taught by Professor Guneralph during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter 12 Folding - Crustal Deformation Processes Chapter 12 Tectonics Earthquakes and Volcanism Folding Faulting Rocks are subject to powerful

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