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Unformatted text preview: - - - - - ------- - Asian Engli.shes Today Series Editor: Kingsley Bolton Professor of English Linguistics, Stockholm University Honorary Professor, The University of Hong Kong ILIPPI E GLIS liNGUISTIC AND liTERARY PERSPECTIVES The volumes in this series provide a contemporary record of English language and literature in South, Southeast, and East Asia. Volumes in this series reflect themes that cut across national boundaries, including the study of English in law, government and education; language contact; language and globalization; language and the media; language policies and planning; as well as issues related to Asian literatures in English. The editorial advisory board comprises a number of leading scholars in the field of world Englishes, including Maria Lourdes S. Bautista (De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines), Susan Butler (Macquarie Dictionary, Australia), Braj B. Kachru (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Yamuna Kachru (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Shirley Geok-lin Lim (University of California, Santa Barbara), Tom McArthur (founding editor of English Today), Anne Pakir (National University of Singapore), Larry E. Smith (co-founding editor of World Englishes), and Yasukata Yano (Waseda University, Japan). Edited IBJ MA.lOURDES S. BAUTISTA and KINGSLEY BOlliN Also in the series: Hong Kong English: Autonomy and Creativity Edited by Kingsley Bolton Japanese English: Language and Culture Contact James Stanlaw China's English: A History of English in Chinese Education Bob Adamson Asian Englishes: Beyond the Canon Braj B. Kachru World Englishes in Asian Contexts Yamuna Kachru and Cecil L. Nelson -w~~~ ili ~a if±. HONG KONG UNIVERSITY PRESS Hong Kong University Press 14/F Hing Wai Centre 7 Tin Wan Praya Road Aberdeen Hong Kong © Hong Kong University Press 2008 ISBN 978-962-209-947-0 All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without per:mlssion in writing from the publisher. Secure On-line Ordering British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Printed and bound by Condor Production Co. Ltd., in Hong Kong, China In memory of Brother Andrew Gonzalez, FSC (1940-2006) Contents Series editor's preface Acknowledgements List of contributors Map of the Philippines Xl Xlll XV X:Vll Introduction Philippine English: Linguistic and literary perspectives Kingsley Bolton and Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista 1 Part I: The Sociollinguristic Context 11 1 A favorable climate and soil: A transplanted language and literature Andrew Gonzalez, FSC 13 2 English in Philippine education: Solution or problem? Allan B. I. Bernardo 29 3 English-language media in the Philippines: Description and research Danilo T. Dayag 49 4 World Englishes or worlds of English? Pitfalls of a postcolonial discourse in Philippine English T. Ruanni F. Tupas 67 5 'When I was a child I spake as a child': Reflecting on the limits of a nationalist language policy D. V. S. Manarpaac 87 G) Contents vru Contents rx 101 17 Filipino diasporic literature Alfred A. Yuson 337 Part ll: linguistic Forms 129 357 7 Linguistic diversity and English in the Philippines Curtis D. McFarland 131 18 In conversation: Cebuano writers on Philippine literature and English Simeon Dumdum, Timothy Mo, and Resil Mojares Part IV: Resources 369 8 A lectal description of the phonological features of Philippine English Ma. Lourdes G. Tayao 157 19 Bibliographical resources for researching English in the Philippines Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista 371 Lexicography and the description of Philippine English vocabulary Kingsley Bolton and Susan Butler 175 Index 395 6 9 Taglish, or the phantom power of the lingua franca Vicente L. Rafael 10 Investigating the grammatical features of Philippine English Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista 201 11 English in Philippine call centers and BPO operations: Issues, opportunities, and research Jane Lockwood, Gail Forey, and Helen Price 219 Part ill: Philippine Engl.ish literature 243 12 Colonial education and the shaping of Philippine literature in English Isabel Pefianco Martin 245 13 Negotiating language: Postcolonialism and nationalism in Philippine literature in English Lily Rose Tope 261 14 'This scene so fair': Filipino English poetry, 1905-2005 Gemino H. Abad 279 15 The Philippine short story in English: An overview Cristina Pantoja Hidalgo 299 16 The Filipino novel in English Caroline S. Hau 317 <& Series editor's preface This volume on Philippine English is an important addition to the Asian Englishes Today series, not least because the Philippines is numerically one of the most important English-using societies in Asia. At various times over recent decades, the claim has been made that the Philippines was the world's 'thirdlargest' English-using society in the world, with some sixty percent of its eightyodd million population claiming a facility in the language. Given the negotiable nature of such claims, as well as recent spread of English in such societies as India and China, such generalizations are easily challenged, but, despite this, there is little doubt that the Philippines is one of the most significant and most interesting English-using societies in Asia, a society where, for a number of decades, there has been a general awareness and recognition of a localized variety of English characterized by its own distinct lexicon, accent, and variations in grammar. The distinctiveness of Philippine English as a linguistic variety has been paralleled by the literary creativity of its novelists, short story writers, and poets, who have produced- and continue to produce - a substan.tial body of writing in English, aimed not only at domestic readers but also at the international audience for world literature in English. The volume is composed of four parts. Part I deals with the sociolinguistic context with contributions from Philippine scholars drawn from such fields as anthropology, education, linguistics, and literary studies. Part ll focuses on linguistic description, including not only the description of the features of Philippine English, but also the description of English in contact with indigenous Philippine languages, as well as the English in the context of international call centers based in the national capital Manila. Part III deals with the literary creativity of Philippine writers in English, with chapters on colonial education, postcolonialism and nationalism, poetry, short fiction, the novel, regional writers and diasporic Philippine literature. Here, we have been particularly fortunate in attracting a number of contributors who are not only astute commentators on the literary scene, but also celebrated creative writers x11 Series editor's preface themselves. Part N comprises a research bibliography of considerable value to scholars in the field. For all these reasons, I believe that this volume makes a very important contribution to the Asian Englishes Today series. AB with a number of other volumes in this series, the study of English in the Philippines is not simply about the study of an ABian variety of the English language, but also provides insights into many other issues, including colonial and postcolonial languages and literatures, languages in contact, language and education, intercultural communication, and English literature worldwide. Acknowledgements Kingsley Bolton July 2008 The three chapters from D. V. S. Manarpaac, Vicente L. Rafael, and Simeon Dumdum et al. were previously published elsewhere, but are included in this collection because of the value they bring. The editors wish to thank Rodopi publishers for permission to reprint the article by D. V. S. Manarpaac, '"When I was a child I spake as a child": Reflecting on the limits of a nationalist language policy', first published in The Politics ofEnglish as a World Language, edited by Christian Mair, Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, 2003. We also wish to thank Duke University Press, for their permission to reprint the chapter from Vicente L. Rafael, 'Taglish, or the phantom power of the lingua franca', first published in li\lhite Love and Other Events in Filipino History, by Vicente Rafael, Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Finally, we wish to thank Blackwell for permission to reprint the chapter by Simeon Dumdum, Timothy Mo, and Resil Mojares, 'In conversation: Cebuano writers on Philippine literature and English', originally published in WorldEnglishesvol. 23, 1, 2004, 191-98. List of contributors Gemino H. Abad is Professor Emeritus at the University of the Philippines and a leading Filipino poet. Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista is a University Fellow and Professor Emerita of English and Applied Linguistics at De La Salle University-Manila. Allan B. I. Bernardo is a University Fellow and Professor of Counseling and Educational Psychology at De La Salle University-Manila. Kingsley Bolton is Professor of English Linguistics at Stockholm University, Sweden. Susan Butler is the Publisher of the Macquarie Dictionary, Sydney, Australia. Danilo T. Dayag is Associate Professor at the Department of English and Applied Linguistics at De La Salle University-Manila. Simeon Dumdum, Jr., is a leading Filipino poet and an Executive Judge of the Regional Trial Court in Cebu City. Gail F orey is Assistant Professor at the Department of English, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. Andrew.Gonzalez, FSC, was President Emeritus, University Fellow, and Professor of Linguistics at De La Salle University-Manila. Caroline S. Hau is Associate Professor of Southeast Asian Studies at Kyoto University, Japan. ~ xvi List of contributors Cristina Pantoja Hidalgo is a writer of fiction and creative nonfiction, a teacher of creative writing and literature at the University of the Philippines, and is currently the University of the Philippines' Vice President for Public Affairs. »(r) Cillll!UA Jane Lockwood is Head of the Centre for Language in Education at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. D. V S. Manarpaac teaches in the Department of European Languages of the University of the Philippines-Diliman and is currently researching transnationalism and Filipino American writing. p iliS311Uo Korea 0 0TaiWiillll "' illoung HCoung l.Unetouam / ... .Jiill~iDIB D ~Sl.Philippines ~4~ ~ Isabel Pefianco Martin is Associate Professor at the Department of English, Ateneo de Manila University. Curtis D. McFarland is Professor of English and Linguistics at Waseda University, Tokyo,Japan. ~---'-------,' Timothy Mo is a novelist and a frequent visitor to the Philippines. Resil B. Mojares is Professor Emeritus at the University of San Carlo, Cebu City. Helen Price is a- consultant on business and professional English and an independent researcher. Vicente L. Rafael is Professor of History at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Ma. Lourdes G. Tayao is Professorial Lecturer in Teaching English as a Second Language at the University of the East, Manila. Lily Rose Tope is Professor at the Department of English and Comparative Literature, University of the Philippines. T. Ruanni F. Tupas is Lecturer at the Centre for English Language Communication, National University of Singapore. Alfred A. Yuson is a fiction writer, essayist, and poet, and Professorial-Lecturer in Fiction and Poetry at the Ateneo de Manila University. Philippines lntrodu -on Philippine English: Linguistic and literary perspectives Kingsley Bolton and Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista Encountering the Philippines The unprepared foreign visitor to the Philippines is often astounded by the immediate encounter with this tropical society and the texture of a daily life that includes crowded and chaotic cities, heat and rain, music and dance, and friendly, hospitable, multi-tongued people in a nation with more than a hundred recognized indigenous languages. In the capital Manila (population twelve million), the street signs are in English; the disc jockey on the radio woos the station's listeners in dulcet American; the bookstores are full of English books (many penned by local writers); and the front pages of the major newspapers assail readers with headlines such as 'PNP Opposes Erap Confinement', '4 Pinoys Hurt in Ship Blast in Australia', and 'Local Bets Troop to Comelec'. Although most Manileiios only speak English to other Filipinos in such formal settings as the boardroom or the law court, and prefer to mix English into a hybrid vemacular of Taglish (Tagalog and English) with each other, the presence of an American-influenced variety of English permeates public and private life in an unusual and surprising fashion. The taxi driver may give you a nuanced account of local politics, the coffee shop waitress may discuss Tess oftheD'Urbervilles, and the salesperson in a store may crack ajoke in colloquial Philippine English (Joke only.0 -interactions unlikely to be repeated in other Asian cities. Our foreign visitors may take this somehow for granted as they head to their business meeting, or in the case of tourists, head for their beach vacation. Or they may find time to consider and to ponder how it is that this predominantly Malay society, with its diaspora of overseas emigres and workers, happened to become one of the largest English-speaking societies in the world. As editors, we have been guided by two essential aims in compiling this volume on English in the Philippines. The first of these has been to produce a volume that would be of interest to an intemational audience, some of whom may be scholars with an extensive knowledge of Philippine linguistics and 2 Kingsley Bolton and Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista literature, while others in this audience may have little previous knowledge in this area. The story of English in the Philippines is a compelling tale, and one that deserves intemational recognition, we would argue, involving as it does narratives of colonialism and postcolonialism, of hybrid language and literature, as well as contemporary histories of politics and globalization. A second aim has been to publish a volume that would serve students and teachers in the Philippines who are interested in researching aspects of Philippine English, from both a linguistic and literary perspective. We therefore trust that this volume will not only serve as a record of previous research, but also as a starting point for future studies in this field, and will be of direct use to the local academic and educational community. For both audiences, however, it may be useful at this point to consider at least some of the sociolinguistic (i.e. historical, social, political, and linguistic) realities that have influenced the spread of the language here, not least because of the impact of historical, social, and political factors in shaping English language and literature in the Philippines. The sociolinguistic background The Republic of the Philippines comprises 7,107 islands located close to the equator, south of the China mainland, east of Vietnam, and northeast of the Indonesian archipelago. For much of its existence as a geographical entity, the Philippines has owed its identity and borders to successive waves of colonialism, and the name Felipinas is said to have been coined in 1543 by the Spanish explorer Ruy de Villalobos in honor of Crown Prince Felipe (or Philip), later King Philip II of Spain (1556-98) (Quimpo, 2003). Ethnically and racially, the majority of Filipinos are considered Austronesian, having a kinship with similar populations in Indonesia and Malaysia, while there are over one hundred indigenous Austronesian languages spoken in the Philippines (McFarland, this volume). The most important indigenous ethnic groups include the Tagalogs on Luzon Island (the majority population in and around Manila), the Cebuanos (or 'Visayans') in the southern islands, and the Ilocanos from northern Luzon. Philippine society is also noticeably creolized, with significant groups of Philippine-Spanish, Philippine-Chinese, and even Philippine-American 'mestizo' groups in the community, particularly in the cities. McFerson comments that contemporary Filipinos are 'virtually "a race of races" ', and that although essentially Malay in racial composition, 'they also have Negrito, Indonesian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Arab, European, and American "bloods"' (2002: 15). The first colonial power to rule the Philippines was Spain, who govemed the Philippines from Mexico from 1565 until 1898. During this period, Catholicism became strongly established throughout Philippine society, and today eighty percent of the Introduction 3 population claim to be Catholic. Despite this, various types of animistic and folk beliefs are still widely held, while there is also a substantial Muslim population in the south, in and around the island of Mindanao. The Philippines was occupied and colonized by the US after the Philippine-American War of 1899-1902, which immediately followed the Spanish-American war, when Spain also lost control over Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam. The United States essentially maintained colonial control over the Philippines until1946, at which time the Philippines became an independent nation (a third group of colonizers were in fact theJapanese, who took control of the islands during World War II, from 1941-1944). Since then, the American govemment has continued to exert a strong influence over Philippine politics, which during the Vietnam War led the United States to give prolonged support to Ferdinand Marcos, whose presidency from 1965-1986 became a dictatorship. Mter the fall of Marcos as a result of the 'People Power' movement in 1986, Philippine domestic politics has continued to dismay many observers. Even notionally reformist govemments, such as those of Corazon Aquino (1986-92) and Fidel Ramos (1992-98), have proved unable to tackle the widespread corruption throughout many sectors of society. Following Ramos, Joseph 'Erap' Estrada (1998-2001) was elected as a result of his popularity as a film actor, but was subsequently forced to step down and charged with 'economic plunder' in January 2001, when the current President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo took office. Politically, the Philippine democratic system is still far from stable, and national elections in the country are dogged by violence and electoral manipulation and fraud. Equally worrisome are the assassinations of over 800 left-wing politicians, social activists, and trade union leaders since Arroyo took power. In addition, so many joumalists have also been murdered over the last decade that, by 2004, it was claimed that the Philippines was the second most dangerous location in the world for newsmen after Iraq (Mendoza, 2004). Economically and socially, there are vast differences in wealth between the upper classes of Philippine society ('the oligarchs') and the lower classes of the cities and provinces (the masa, or 'masses'), at a time when increasing numbers of the rural poor are migrating to the cities. Numerous economic reports have indicated that the development of the nation has lagged behind that of comparable Asian societies, such as Malaysia, Thailand, and South Korea. One of the major foreign exchange earners for the society continues to be the export of human labor (particularly female labor), and an estimated eight million Filipinos now work overseas, often in low-paid jobs, as domestic helpers (in Hong Kong), as nurses (in the US and UK), or, in the case of males, as engineers, technicians, and merchant seamen. In the words of a recent BBC report, '[w]ith high literacy rates (87%) and good English speaking ability, Filipinos are arguably the country's greatest export' (Jinkinson, 2003). For those who remain in the Philippines, the prospects for 4 Kingsley Bolton and Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista domesti...
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  • Fall '17
  • Tagabe
  • English, Philippine English

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