Ch 1 8.31.17.pptx - Chapter 1 Introductio n to Educationa l...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introductio n to Educationa l Research Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. EPSY 5050 FALL 2017 Why Study Educational Research? To become "research literate." Because we live in a society that's driven by research. To improve your critical thinking skills. To learn how to read and critically evaluate published research. To learn how to design and conduct research, if that is your path! Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. General Kinds of Research There are five general kinds of research: basic research applied research evaluation research action research orientational research Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Basic and Applied Research Basic research is aimed at generating fundamental knowledge about natural processes. Applied research is focused on practical questions; goal is to provide relatively immediate solutions. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Evaluation Research Evaluation: determining the worth, merit, or quality of an evaluation object. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Action Research Focuses on solving practitioner’s local problems. Conducted by practitioners. It’s a state of mind; teacher takes on research attitude, constantly testing new ideas and putting results into action. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Orientational Research Done for purpose of advancing an ideological position Focused on inequality and discrimination Class stratification Gender stratification Ethnic and racial stratification Sexual orientation stratification International inequalities Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Sources of Knowledge How do people learn about the world around them and gain knowledge? More specifically for this class, how do researchers gather information and arrive at conclusions? Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Sources of Knowledge (cont.) 1. Experience Knowledge comes from experience. Historically, this idea is called empiricism. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Sources of Knowledge (cont.) 2. Reasoning Rationalism is idea that original knowledge comes from reasoning. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Two Main Forms of Reasoning Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning The “problem of induction” is that future might not resemble the past. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation Science is an approach for generation of knowledge. Relies on empiricism (collection of data) and rationalism (use of reasoning and theory construction and testing). Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Dynamics of Science Science is broadly progressive. Science is rational. Science is creative. Science is dynamic. Science is open. Science is “critical." Science is never-ending. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Table 1.3 Summary of Common Assumptions Made by Educational Researchers Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Scientific Methods The confirmatory method: 1. State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature) & deduce what must be observed if hypothesis is true. 2. Collect data to test the hypothesis. 3. Make a decision to tentatively accept or reject the hypothesis. Confirmatory method is commonly used by quantitative researchers. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Exploratory Method 1. Observe the world in all of its particulars. 2. Search for patterns. 3. Make a descriptive conclusion or generalization. Exploratory method is commonly used by qualitative researchers. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Exploratory Method (cont.) Virtually any application of science includes use of both confirmatory and exploratory approaches. Exploratory method is “bottom up” method for generating theories and hypotheses. Confirmatory method is “top down” method for testing theories and hypotheses. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Figure 1.1 The Research Wheel Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Theory Most simply means "explanation." Explains "How" and "Why" something operates as it does. Some theories are formal and “grand”. Some theories are less formal and “smaller”. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Principle of Evidence Empirical research provides evidence, NOT proof. Research conclusions are tentative and probabilistic. Evidence increases when a finding is replicated. Remember: Do not draw a firm conclusion from a single study. Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. Objectives of Research Exploration Description Explanation Prediction Johnson/Christensen, Educational Research 5 th Edition © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc. ...
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