CPA 16.docx - Ari BIO 17 April 2018 CPA 16 1 What are the...

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Ari BIO 17 April 2018 CPA 16 1. What are the functional implications of gene regulation? The functional implications of gene regulation is that it conserves energy and space. It would also require a lot of energy for an organism to express every gene at all times, so it is a lot more energy efficient to turn on the genes only when they are required. 2. Describe the stages by which gene regulation occurs in a. Eukaryotes In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is contained inside the cell’s nucleus, in which it is transcribed into RNA. Theed RNA is then transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where ribosomes translate the RNA into protein. The processes of transcription and translation are separated by the nuclear membrane; transcription occurs only within the nucleus, and translation occurs only outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. Regulation may occur when the DNA is uncoiled and loosened from nucleosomes to bind transcription factors, when the RNA is transcribed when the RNA is processed and exported to the cytoplasm after it is transcribed, when the RNA is translated into protein, or even after the protein has been made. b. Prokaryotes Prokaryotic organisms are single-celled organisms that lack a cell nucleus, and their DNA therefore floats freely in the cell cytoplasm. To synthesize a protein, the processes of transcription and translation occur almost immediately. When the resulting protein is no longer needed, transcription stops. The primary method to control what type of protein and how much of each protein is expressed in a prokaryotic cell is the regulation of DNA transcription. All of the subsequent steps than are able occur automatically. When more
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protein is required, more transcription occurs. So in prokaryotic cells the gene expression is mainly at a transcriptional level. 3. Define the following terms: a. Operons- Is a collection of genes that are involved in a pathway transcribed together as a single mRNA in prokaryotic cells b. Repressors- Is a protein that is able to bind to the operator of prokaryotic genes to prevent transcription. c. Activators- Is a protein that binds to prokaryotic operators to increase transcription.
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