D3101/16/18Russia, 1861-1913Names (Rus’, Muscovy, Russia/Russian Empire, Russian Federation, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic [RSFSR], Soviet Union/USSR,)Tsar/CzarPrincipaility of Rus’ failed under mongol invasion, one principality around modern day Moscow grew intomodern day Russia. Rus’ to Muscovy to RussiaRussian empire collapsed in 1917 due to revolution, which went to [RSFSR], in 1922 turned into Soviet Union by absorbing Ukraine etc. Lasted till 1991 till the Soviet Union collapsed, is now the Russian Federation, lost much territory. Tsarism was autocratic and believed to be a power granted by God. Ruled this way from 15thcentury to the Russian Revolution. There was a lack of political participation in Tsarism.No parliament till 1906, the Duma couldn’t do much, it was a symbolic appeal to change. No election till 1917, and none after that due to Soviet takeover. Political participation was nonexistent for most of Russian HistoryPolitical terror was commonplace to instill complacency. Mystification of Political power, attempted to keep them in power by making them seem to be the only ones fit, by god. Power was supposed to be divine, people were to accept it as an edict of god. Putin does something similar today with priests. Power is absolute, people cannot express their opinions, if you do you’ll be exiled, “Intelligentsia”Peter I sent people all over Europe to gain technology and support the expansion of Russia, introduced the concept of Westernization. Forced nobles to shave their beards, learn to dance socially, and cast away the traditional Byzantine practices, which was to transform Russia into a modern nation.This turned out to be expensive, he paid for it with serfdoms German married Tzar peter, and had him assassinated, named herself Czar of Russia. Two schools of thought, never conquered each otherWesternizers, people who think Russia is western, or should be more European.
Slavophiles, Nationalists, who support unity, and Slavic pride, collectivism, virtue, no materialism, these people blame Peter for the hardships Russia faced Putin’s War against Kiev and Ukraine is pushed by the SlavophilesNapoleon’s forced attempted to invade, froze before they got there, so Russia marched to France and back to show their mightThe great reform was the emancipation of serfs in 1861, along with many other cultural reforms in Russia. 90% of the population was serfs. However, the state was basically dependent on Serfs to finance war. Tsar Nicholas said not to worry, the peasants would continue to support them. Without getting rid of the feudal serfdom, Russia couldn’t have ever modernized. After Russia lost Crimean war, they turned attention to the East, took Asiatic lands, and built railways in China to connect Siberia to Muy Tai province 1/23/18WW1 and the February Revolution1.Four Empires, Russian, German, Austrian (Habsburgian), and Ottoman: Rise and Fall2.The Ideological Context (Colonialism, Capitalism, Socialism/Social Democracy/Communism, Nationalism, Imperialism): Lenin “Imperialism,