Anthropology 105- Exam Notes.docx - Anthropology 105 Human...

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Anthropology 105: Human Species Gene Section of a chromosome that makes proteins or regulates other genes Holds genetic information which can be applied towards our phenotype Can produce proteins/ regulate other genes (Enable/ Disable) Proteins Building blocks of the body Note: Genes make those proteins -> regulate other genes to make more or less of a gene Allele Different version of a gene Chromosome Long strand of DNA coiled into a dense, thick rod Section of DNA that gets crammed to fit inside the nucleus of a cell DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) -Molecule that makes up our chromosomes The Structure of DNA Twisted latter made up of base pairs (double helix) Base Pairs Sequence of base pairs determines function of a gene G-C G- Guanine C-Cytosine A-T A- Adenine T-Thymine DNA -> RNA To make a protein, the DNA unzips exposing the bases on one side. During RNA: Thymine -> Uracil [A-U] If you change the DNA sequence, you then change the RNA sequence, which can change the function of the protein Different sequences = Different proteins A matching RNA strand is build using the sequence of exposed DNA bases The RNA goes off to build the protein (DNA bases are like letters… their sequence determines their function) Genotype -> Are the gross alleles that you have (genes) Phenotype -> Physical characteristics Heterozygous -> Different Alleles Homozygous -> Same Alleles Mendel’s Rules of inheritance You have 2 copies if each gene one inherited from biological mother, one from biological father
These may be the same alleles or they may be different Together these alleles determine phenotype (Alleles may be dominant, Recessive, Co. Dom) Simple Mendelion Traits Ex - ABO Blood System Genotypes -> AA BB OO AB BO AO (Blood Type) Phenotype -> A B O (Co. D) AB B A Ex - Toy- Sachs Ex - Sickle Cell Anemia Ex – Ear Wax Sperm 23 chromosomes Embryo MtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) in the tail -> 46 chromosomes Egg -> 2 SETS OF 23 ! 23 chromosomes -> one set from both MtDNA in egg -> MtDNA from Mom Meiosis Producing gametes (sperms & Egg) split up the chromosomes to produce sets of pairs Sex-linked Recessive Traits caused by the “Y” affects males since they have a missing allele Female – XX Male – XY Complex Traits (Most Traits are like this) Examples: Weight

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