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OCNG Exam 2 Study Guide

OCNG Exam 2 Study Guide - OCNG 251/508(Brooks Spring 2008...

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OCNG 251/508 (Brooks) Spring 2008 Topical Study Guide for Exam #2 (Chapters 5-7) Ch. 5 (Water and seawater) Atoms, isotopes and molecules Atoms: basic building blocks of all matter -Resembles a microscopic sphere and was originally thought to be the smallest form of matter. -Composed of even smaller particles, subatomic particles - Protons (+) - Neutrons (+) - Electrons (-) o Protons + neutrons = mass # Isotope: atoms with some atomic #, but different # of neutrons Molecules : a group of 2+ atoms held together by mutually shared electrons - When atoms combine with other atoms - Atom + atom = molecules that share/trade electrons and establish chemical bonds Covalent, ionic and Gary US bonds Covalent Bonding: Ionic Bonding: electrons either gained or lost -Produced by the electrostatic attraction between opposite charged ions Gary US Bonds: Structure of the water molecule: the hydrogen bond In water, the (+) charged hydrogen area of one water molecule interacts with the (-) charged oxygen end of an adjacent water molecule H20 + molecule = Hydrogen Bonding The anomalous properties of water -High Latent Heat Capacity: weather modification -High Freezing & Boiling Temperatures: liquid H20 at Earth’s surface -Expansion upon freezing: weathering of rocks -High Surface Tension -High dielectric constant: dissolving power ***Results of Hydro-bonding***
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Changes of state in water: latent heats of melting and vaporization Latent Heat of Melting: -The heat affects the amount of energy needed to increase H20 temperature and change the state of H20. -Is the energy needed to break the intermolecular bonds that hold water molecules rigidly in place in ice crystals. The temperature remains unchanged until most of the bonds are broken and the mixture of ice and water has changed completely to 1g of H20. Latent Heat of Vaporation: - 540 calories per gram for water -The amount of heat that must be added to 1g of a substance at its boiling point to break intermolecular bonds and complete the change of state from liquid to vapor (gas). Heat capacity of land vs. water; impacts on climate -The thermostatic effect of water is those properties that act to moderate changes in the temperature. -The marine effect describes locations that experience that moderating influences of the ocean, usually on coastlines. -Is only a small difference in temperature between day and night while the land experiences a much greater variation. This difference is due to the higher heat capacity of water, which is the ability to absorb the daily grains and minimize the daily losses of heat energy much more easily than land materials. Solutions and dissolving power of water -Solution: a state in which a solute is homogeneously dissolved in a liquid solvent. Ex. Salts solute in ocean water. Solute=salt Separating the ionic bonds make solute -Dissolved solids reduce the freezing point of water. Salts in seawater; definition and measurement of salinity
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OCNG Exam 2 Study Guide - OCNG 251/508(Brooks Spring 2008...

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