Ethics TheoriesEgoism 利己主义Feinberg (1958) egoism is a selfish behavior to pursuit some one’s own interests at theexpense of others. 把追求个人利益建立在牺牲别人的基础上。Pursuit of one’s own interest. Egoism is the theory that one’s self is, or should be, the motivation and the goal of one’s own action.Egoism has two variants descriptive and prescriptively.oDescriptive egoism claims that we always actin the pursuit of self-interest.oEthical Egoism is the claim that we should alwayspursue our own self-interest. Distinguishing Egoism:1-Behavioural egoism vs psychological egoism vs philosophical egoismBehavioural Egoism- We act in pursuitof our self interestPsychological Egoism- We are motivatedby our self interestPhilosophical Egoism- As our motivation issue from ourselves and not from others, they are by necessarily self-interested/ self-regarding – They are our motivation.2-Primary motivations vs Instrumental motivationPrimary motivation- Our Final Purpose(Pleasure, Happiness/Wellbeing)Instrumental Motivation- The driveto pursue those things that will bring us pleasure.Supporting Ethical Egoism:oLimited obligations: We can’t be expected to act altruistically all the time, or constantly prioritise the interests of others over our own. oEfficiency:We know our own interests better than others do, and they know theirs better than we do. So, it will be more efficient if we each see to our own.Objecting Ethical Egoism:oIt cannot adjudicate conflictand as yet markets are not perfect.oMoralityis generally seen as a restrainton self-interest – Hence egoism oxymoronic.oThe paradox of egoism- Those who constantly pursue their own desires are less happy. oEgoism is incompatiblewith many human activities. Such as giving advice or being an agent.
Utilitarianism 功利主义Bentham (1822) utilitarianism does not take into account the motives and ways of anindividual, and only considers the effect of the action on the maximum of happiness.功利主义不考虑一个人行为的动机和手段，仅考虑一个行为的结果对最大快乐值的影响。If you do something that maximises your own happiness, makes other happy, and leavesprecious fewpeople miserable, that action is justifiable.Ethical theory that uses a cost-benefit approach. A theory that the aim of action should be the largest possible balanceof pleasure over pain or the greatest happiness of the greatest number.If the action brings more total happiness than unhappiness for more people, it is justified.Problem with Utilitarianism:oDistribution Problem- The phrase greatest good for the greatest number of people is too ambiguous.