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Running head: DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS1Diabetes and Drug TreatmentsWalden UniversityNURS 6521; Advanced PharmacologyJanuary 7, 2018
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS 2Diabetes and Drug TreatmentsDiabetes is a term that is used to represent a group of disorders that is characterized by anabnormally high blood glucose level called hyperglycemia (Nowakowski-Grier and Wilbur, 2017). There are many types of diabetes including type 1 or juvenile diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Hyperglycemia is a result of insulin deficiency or the cellular resistance to what insulin does in the body. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology of the different types of diabetes while discussing treatment options for Type 2 diabetes. PathophysiologyType 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, is thought to be an autoimmune diseasein which pancreatic beta cells are destroyed (Nowakowski-Grier and Wilbur, 2017). Beta cells are responsible for the secretion of insulin which regulates the levels of glucose in the blood. If beta cells are destroyed then the pancreas can produce no insulin, causing elevated blood glucoselevels. Type 1 diabetes mostly occurs in patients that are younger than 30 years of age and is oneof the most common chronic diseases in children. It is thought that viral agents are the cause of Type 1 diabetes with numerous different viruses being reported as preceding the diseases onset (Nowakowski-Grier and Wilbur, 2017). Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way the body metabolizes sugar (Mayo Clinic, 2018). In Type 2 Diabetes either the pancreas produces less insulin than the body needs or adipose and muscle cells become less sensitive to the actions of insulin (Nowakowski-Grier and Wilbur, 2017).
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS 3These factors cause the blood glucose levels to increase above normal. Most patients with Type 2 Diabetes are over the age of 30 with the major risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes beingobesity and family history. Though this type of diabetes is more common in adults, it is being seen more frequently in children as childhood obesity increases (Mayo Clinic, 2018).