The Cultural Landscape by Rubenste i n Chapter 5: Languages Key Issue 1: Where Are Languages Distributed? Pages 142-149 ***Always keep your key term packet out whenever you take notes from Rubenstein. As the terms come up in the text, think through the significance of the term. 1.Define language: the system of communication used by a particular community or country. 2. Define official language : The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents. 3.Define language family: A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history. 4. Define language branch : A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family. Define language group : group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary. 5. Make brief notes on each of the following language families as you read about them in this section (i.e. how many people speak a language of that family, where spoken, common languages, etc.). See pages 146-149. a. Indo-European is a large, widespread family of languages, the surviving branches of which include Italic, Slavic, Baltic, Hellenic, Celtic, Germanic, and Indo -Iranian, spoken by about half the world's population: English, Spanish, German, Latin, Greek, Russian, Albanian, Lithuanian, Armenian, Persian, and Hindi. b. Sino-Tibetan is one of the largest language families in the world, with more first-language speakers than even Indo-European. The more than 1.1 billion speakers of Sinitic (the Chinese dialects) constitute the world's largest speech community.
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenste i n Chapter 5: Languages c. Austronesian inhabitants that spread westward through Maritime Southeast Asia had reached some parts of mainland Southeast Asia, and later on Madagascar. Sailing from Melanesia, and Micronesia, the Austronesian peoples discovered Polynesia by 1000 BC. These people settled most of the Pacific Islands. d. Austro-Asiatic Major syllables are composed of one or two initial consonants, followed by one major vowel and one final consonant. Many languages—e.g., Khmer, Mon, and Bahnar—allow major syllables without final consonants, but no Austroasiatic language allows combinations of two or more final consonants.
e. Tai Kadai also known as Kra–Dai, Daic, and Kadai , are a language family of highly tonal languages found in southern China, northeast India and Southeast Asia. They include Thai and Lao, the national languages of Thailand and Laos respectively.
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